SC EXSC 224 - Final Exam Study Guide (14 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This study guide covers a summary of what you need to know from chapters 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, and 23. Chapters 21 and 23 are covered in much more detail than material from the past 3 exams.

Study Guide
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Exsc 224 - Anatomy/physiology Ii
Anatomy/physiology Ii Documents
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EXSC 224 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 11 Nervous System Functions Sensory input integration and motor output The different components functions and divisions of the CNS and PNS The two cell types of the nervous system neurons and supporting cells neuroglia o Supporting cells are the most abundant type The different types of neuroglia in the CNS and PNS and their physical characteristics and functions o CNS Astrocytes Microglia Ependymal cells Oligodendrocytes o PNS Satellite cells Schwann cells Definition of neurons composition and characteristics Properties and functions of nerve cell body dendrites and axons Make up and function of myelin sheath o Formation of myelin sheath The difference between myelinated and unmyelinated axons and where each is found o Both types are found in CNS Characteristics of axons in the CNS The difference between white and gray matter and what each is composed of Structural description and example of each type of structural neuron classification o Multipolar bipolar and unipolar Functional classification of neurons sensory afferent motor efferent and interneurons association Chapter 12 Central Nervous System Definition of gyrus sulcus and fissure Sulci separate the lobes of the brain Know locations of central sulcus parieto occipital sulcus lateral sulcus precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus Function of cerebral cortex enables sensation communication memory understanding and voluntary movements Functional areas of cerebral cortex o Motor voluntary movement sensory awareness of sensation and association integration of information Location function and dysfunction of motor sensory and association areas Motor areas o Primary motor cortex premotor cortex Brocca s area and frontal eye field Sensory areas o Primary somatosensory cortex somatosensory association cortex primary visual cortex visual association area primary auditory cortex auditory association area Association areas o Prefrontal cortex language areas Wernicke s area Broca s area lateral prefrontal cortex What structures make up the diencephalon and their function o Thalamus hypothalamus and epithalamus Chapter 13 Peripheral Nervous System For all 12 cranial nerves know where they originate what they innervate function and what symptoms a person will experience if the nerve is damaged I Olfactory II Optic III Oculomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Accessory XII Hypoglossal Know how many spinal nerves are in each region of the spinal cord o 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal Know from where the ventral and dorsal roots of spinal nerves arise Know what rami the spinal nerves branch into Definition of a plexus Know the 4 plexuses what rami they are formed by what areas they innervate and the major nerves they include and the functions of these major nerves Cervical Plexus major nerve phrenic nerve Brachial Plexus o Know the 4 major branches roots trunks divisions and cords o Major nerves axillary musculocutaneous median ulnar and radial Lumbar Plexus major nerves femoral and obturator Sacral Plexus o Major nerve sciatic nerve composed of 2 nerves tibial and common fibular Chapter 14 Autonomic Nervous System Know the differences between the ANS and the Somatic Nervous System Function and effect of Acetylcholine ACh excitatory Differences in function between sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions and the roles of each Parasympathetic division outflow cranial and sacral outflow Sympathetic Outflow o Preganglionic fibers white rami communicates synapse in chain ganglia postganglionic fibers innervate organs o Pathways to head thorax abdomen and pelvis For each pathway know where fibers emerge and synapse and what organs structures the pathway serves Two major neurotransmitters of ANS o Acetylcholine ACh released by cholinergic fibers o Norepinephrine NE released by adrenergic fibers Cholinergic Receptors o Nicotinic receptors know where they re found effect is always stimulatory o Muscarinic receptors know where found effect can either be inhibitory or excitatory Adrenergic Receptors o Alpha generally stimulatory o Beta generally inhibitory o Study table 14 3 know where each receptor type is located its effect of binding Know the effects functions of these drugs o Atropine neostigmine tricyclic antidepressants o Over the counter drugs for colds allergies and nasal congestion o Beta blockers Know definitions of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone Roles of sympathetic division not influenced by parasympathetic division o Thermoregulation o Release of renin from kidneys o Metabolic effects Chapter 16 Endocrine System Know definition of endocrine system and hormones Major organs hypothalamus pituitary gland thyroid parathyroid pancreas adrenal glands and gonads Know definition of autocrines and paracrines Classifications of hormones amino acid based steroids and eicosanoids Hormone activity is regulated by hormone concentration and receptor concentration 3 types of hormone interactions permissiveness synergism and antagonism Know how endocrine glands are regulated humoral neural and hormonal stimuli Two parts of anterior pituitary neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis o Know functions hormones secreted and type of connection with hypothalamus Anterior pituitary hormones growth hormone thyroid stimulating hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone gonadotropins prolactin Growth hormone GH o Know its functions purpose what it s regulated by effects of overproduction and deficiencies Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH o Stimulates normal development and secretory activity of thyroid Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH o Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids Gonadotropins FSH and LH know functions of each in males and females Posterior pituitary hormones oxytocin and ADH o Know functions roles deficiencies and overproduction dysfunctions Thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin o Know hypo and hyper thyroid disorders Thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3 know functions and structure of each Chapter 17 Blood Know coomponents of whole blood cells proteins electrolytes Hematocrit the proportion of whole blood that is erythrocytes o Erythrocytes anucleate biconcave disc 97 hemoglobin o Spectrin protein that gives flexibility Erythropoietin increases red blood cell production by stimulating red bone marrow Know this diagram very well Erythrocyte disorders anemia thalassemias

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