TAMU BIOL 213 - Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis (5 pages)

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Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis



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Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis

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Lecture number:
24
Pages:
5
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Biol 213 - Molecular Cell Biol
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 213 1st Edition Lecture 24 Outline of Last Lecture I Cyclic AMP a Produced by adenylyl cyclase b Primary target is PKA II Inositol triphosphate IP3 diacylglycerol DAG and Ca2 a IP3 and DAG are generated by phospholipase C b IP3 opens Ca2 channels in the ER and Ca2 and DAG activate PKC c Ca2 can bind to other proteins like calmodulin which can then bind to CaMkinase III Enzyme linked receptors a Receptor tyrosine kinases activate signaling proteins b PIP3 c Ras IV Some pathways are activated only if multiple signals are present V Review VI Plant signaling VII Receptor downregulation Outline of Current Lecture I Eukaryotic cell cycle a Four phases II III IV b Regulation was discovered by observing mitosis of Xenopus frog eggs Cyclin and Cdks control progression through the cell cycle a M cyclin binds to Cdk to create an M Cdk b The sharp decrease in levels of M cyclin after M phase is due to degradation of cyclin by proteasomes S Phase DNA replication G1 phase arrest due to DNA damage These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute V a Outline If DNA damage is detected p53 will be activated which will initiate transcription of the p21 gene The p21 protein a Cdk will bind to the active SCdk and inactivate it so that S phase cannot be initiated Apoptosis programmed cell death a It s mediated by an intracellular proteolytic cascade that cuts the cell up into nice little pieces b High stress to the p53 protein causes the p53 to induce apoptosis Current Lecture I Eukaryotic cell cycle a Four phases i G1 phase cell growth ii S phase DNA replication iii G2 phase cell growth iv M phase mitosis and cytokinesis b Internal and external conditions are monitored during the G1 and G2 phase i If any of these conditions aren t met signals in the cell stop it from going through mitosis ii G1 checkpoint 1 Right before the cell goes into the S phase 2 It checks external



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