TAMU BIOL 213 - Cell Communication Part 2 (7 pages)

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Cell Communication Part 2



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Cell Communication Part 2

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Lecture number:
23
Pages:
7
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Biol 213 - Molecular Cell Biol
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 213 1st Edition Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture I Signal transduction a 5 different kinds of signaling II Response to signaling III Intracellular receptors a Ex nitric oxide and steroid hormones IV Cell surface receptors a 3 main kinds i Ion channels G protein coupled receptors enzyme linked receptors b Molecular switches Outline of Current Lecture I Cyclic AMP a Produced by adenylyl cyclase b Primary target is PKA II Inositol triphosphate IP3 diacylglycerol DAG and Ca2 a IP3 and DAG are generated by phospholipase C b IP3 opens Ca2 channels in the ER and Ca2 and DAG activate PKC c Ca2 can bind to other proteins like calmodulin which can then bind to CaMkinase III Enzyme linked receptors a Receptor tyrosine kinases activate signaling proteins b PIP3 c Ras These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute IV Some pathways are activated only if multiple signals are present V Review VI Plant signaling VII Receptor downregulation Current Lecture I Cyclic AMP a Many G protein coupled receptors active adenylyl cyclase b This enzyme produces cyclic AMP from ATP i It connects one oxygen from phosphate to an OH on the sugar ii 2 phosphates are removed from ATP c There is a very low concentration of cyclic AMP inside an unstimulated cell compared to a stimulated cell d It is a second messenger i It diffuses through the cell and interacts with other proteins to initiate a response e Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase terminates the signal i It converts cyclic AMP to regular 5 AMP ii By breaking the bond between the oxygen and sugar iii Kinases add 2 phosphates to reform ATP iv Caffeine blocks the phosphodiesterase so that the concentration of cyclic AMP stays high f It s primary target is cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase PKA i PKA is activated when cyclic AMP binds to it ii This activated kinase then phosphorylates serines and threonines amino acids on specific proteins g



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