MSU IAH 204 - IAH204 NOTE (27 pages)

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IAH204 NOTE



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IAH204 NOTE

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Pages:
27
School:
Michigan State University
Course:
Iah 204 - Asia and the World (I)
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08 27 1 Social context of early China Tensions between the political center the Zhou court and regional lords Constant warfare and widespread desires for peace and order This violet era of competition between the domains was one of the most intellectually creative in China s history 2 The ideograph sign The definition A written sigh of a single syllable that represents the idea of an object rather than the sound of the speech as exemplified in the phonetic language 3 The Classic of Poetry It is an anthology of 305 ancient poems The collection has been in circulation since the sixth century BC It was used as a cultural encyclopedia across the social divide between the high and the low e g A textbook a manual for diplomatic communications courtship political satire and social protest etc 4 Content Popular songs 1 160 poems from 15 different regions Elegance 161 265 it overlaps with folk songs satires allegories by elites Great Odes 266 305 ritual ceremonial hymns and legends of the earliest period and political 5 Format Subject matters love war hardship of agricultural life sacrifice complaint of the deserted banished wife subject and dynastic legends etc Style straightforward in immediate imagery and musical nature Mode self expressive 6 The Osprey The scholarly version is the translation by Bernhard Karlgren Guan Kwan Gwan is the mimic sound of the osprey Lovely is the good girl whom a gentlemen desires Controversy on the interpretation of The Osprey Confucian scholars tend to interpret the bird as a symbol for the royal king in political allegories Modern specialists perceive The Osprey as a love poem 7 The Mao Commentary Great Preface Over politicize the poem Regulate the world relationship with the virtue of the Queen Consort The problem of this exegesis The poem does not open the door for this allegorical assertion Possible reasons Canonization of Confucian thought Make the love poem respectable The impact the Mao renditions became the politically correct reading the The Classic of Poetry during the Han dynasty The allegorical imposition represses diverse voices 8 Lyrical mode versus didactic code Lyrical mode poetry express desire Poetry expresses desires The self expressive subjectivity is at the heart of the poetic creation Open ended approach Didactic mode It aims at teaching a moral lesson It is designated to transform the mind with a certain set of idea It tends to talk above the listener Closed designation Significance of the critical debate the interactions between defiant undercurrents and the dominant powers have given rise to renewals of literary creations What are some ways we can try to do this Love war hardship of agricultural life dynastic legends strange of deserted isolated people sacrifice 9 The cypress boat 09 03 Intellectual Foundations Confucius and Laozi Cultural Context the 6th century BC 1 The social crisis Competitions for leadership among states Uncertainty and change 2 Thinkers emerged to respond with the chaos Debates and dialogues among different schools of thought 3 Re definitions of the previous ideas In the large picture Contextual Reference 1 Spring and Autumn 722 481 BC Confucius 551 479 BC Laozi Warring States 403 221 BC Mencius 371 289 BC Zhuangzi 369 286 BC Xunzi 298 238 BC Confucius 551 479 BC 1 View Confucius in historicity Perceive his thought without the canonical glory inscribed in the Han dynasty Explore the significance of his thought The impact of his school of thought The Analects 1 Moral power as the principle for the social hierarchy 2 Personal responsibility constitutes the basis for social stability Moral Power continued 1 let the ruler govern as he should and the minister serve as he should Let the father regulate as he should and the son act as a son should Filial piety in the family loyal submission to the ruler in the state The social order is hierarchical as described in the analogy between a family and a state Priority of family over the state 2 Re defining the concept of gentleman Nobility is acquired through personal cultivation CP 21 31 Advocate character over birth is against the hereditary privilege Cultivate oneself in the here and now What you do not want yourself do not do others Moral behavior is reciprocal 3 On learning To learn and at due times to practice what one has learned is that not also a pleasure It is pleasant to use the knowledge one has learned The interrelation between practice and learning Learning and Thinking 1 When I have hold up one corner of a square to anyone and he does not come back with the other three I will not bother to go over the point again 2 Learning without thinking is labor lose thinking without learning is perilous 3 Learning and thinking are complementary Complexity 1 He is critical to hereditary systems but is favor of established norms such as the idealized past over the present age over youth etc 2 I will follow the Duke of Zhou in which old customs are followed The Conversation 1 Administrate the state of 1000 chariots 2 Administrate the state of 60 or 70 li wide 3 Be at services of a royal ancestral temple 4 Bathe with others and return home singing what is the response of the master to the last student The political ideal and the personal preference do not have to exclude each other The Daoist Contention 1 What is the way Path It is the logic which underlies operations of the living universe The Way Path that can be spoken of is not the constant Way Path It is difficult to explain the Way Path in concrete terms The language can only point to the Way Path 2 A Different Focus Focus on relational and individual concerns The nameless is the beginning of Heaven and Earth Recitation Confucius popular at time 1 Father son 2 Husband wife 3 Elder brother young brother 4 Ruler minister 5 Friend friend 6 Family state community Moral Nobility 1 Filial piety obedience respect towards your elders 2 Humaneness 3 Ritual decorum propriety good manner behavior 4 Self cultivation important 5 Wise brave education learning Confucius and The Analects 1 Moral Power Filial Piety Personal responsibility 2 Redefine the concept of the Gentleman Personal cultivation 3 Learning and Thinking 09 08 Tension within Confucian School and Daoist Contention Mencius Xunzi Laozi and Zhuangzi Mencius 317 289 BC 1 Human nature is originally good Uncalculated compassion Motivation of actors in interactions People can be corrupted unless they strive to preserve their innate goodness The individual capacity to


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