TAMU KINE 427 - Final Exam Study Guide (5 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This study guide includes a list of key terms for exam 3 with definitions and explanations.

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Kine 427 - Therapeutic Principles
Therapeutic Principles Documents
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Guide Study PSYC Exam 3510 1 st 3Edition Exam 3 Key Terms Skin Is liable has basement membrane and regenerates throughout life Regeneration potential decreases throughout life Layers of epidermis stratum corneum stratum granulosum stratum germinativum Contains elastic collagen reticular fibers Epidermis o Avascular innervated regenerated normally stratified squamous epithelium o Stratum germinativum are only living cells o Active mitosis at night when loss of top layer Dermis o Dermal papilla holds layer in place o Langer lines for natural stretch direction incisions along lines o Regenerated normally Hypodermis and subcutaneous o Density and arrangement determines skins mobility o Composed of fat and areolar tissue Compartment Syndrome When hemorrhage within a closed muscle unit pressure increases intramuscular hematoma Can cause ischemia necrosis then gangrene Fascia relese surgery within 12 hours can reduce damage Signs pain tightness and shiny skin appearance Hypoxia Occurs in tissues during 2nd phase of laceration abrasion puncture healing Combined with GF leads to capillary buds AKA angiogenesis Tissue Plasminogen Activator Enzyme involved with breakdown of blood clots Found in endothelium of blood vessel Treat strokes embolisms or ischemic attacks Plays role in tissue remodeling Changes plasminogen to plasmin to fibrin Plasmin dissolve fibrin blood clots activates collagenases some mediators of the complement system cleaves von Willebrand factor Stress Fractures Guide Study PSYC Exam 3510 1 st 3Edition due to intensity volume of work Complete defect or crack in bone callus deposition Causes repetitive torque impact low bone density poor alignment Types Oblique and transverse are most common and most dangerous Longitudinal Compression Signs pain swelling atrophy Do not show well in x rays show as hot spot in bone scan Tibia and humerus are common sites Talofibular Ligament Sprain Anterior is involved with inversion ankle sprain most common sprain with calcaneofibular Posterior is involved in severe sprains Grade 1 is no instability 2 is some in stability 3 is gross instability Re injury can be worse important to prevent Typically result in surgery being required Full tensile strength not restored less collagen cross links ACL Scar tissue Can be avoided with incisions along the langer lines Type III collagen disorganized Heling by first intention decreases scar tissue Not as vascular flexible elastic or strong Can inhibit function or cause adhesion of organs Can cause contractures of skin or joint Stretch marks are common form Intramuscular hematoma More severe than intermuscular hematoma Bleeding within fascia of enclosed muscle bundle Bleeding is confined and inflammatory response is multiplied Increases risk of myositis ossificans scarring and compartment syndrome Myositis Ossificans Injury to the muscle Edema causes inappropriate differentiation of fibroblasts to osteoblasts Made worse by heat Tendonitis Inflammation of the tendon or the sheath rare Guide Study PSYC Exam 3510 1 st 3Edition Inflammation of sheath tenosynovitis or paratenonitis Can occur with tendinopathy Tendinosis degeneration and changes in the tendon without swelling Tendionpathy Disease of tendon referring to tendonitis or tindinosis Accompanied by necrosis and vascular abnormalities Disorganized collagen and fiber separation by fat or mucoids Contributes to tendon rupture Diminished tendon strength and function Causes unknown but suspect overload compressive forces steroids malnutrition eccentric Mucoid Part of matrix ground substance that separates collagen and fibers in tendinopathy Deposits in patellar tendonitis and Achilles tindinosis Greenish brown color Appears with tendon degeneration Fibrinous Adhesions Chronic tendinopathy leads to fibrinous adhesions Cause decrease in tissue function and strength Eccentric Contractions Possible etiology of tendinopathy Negative direction on force velocity curve Plyometrics possibly included Can stimulate collagen alignment in late stage remodeling Can cause disturbances in calcium homeostasis and lead to cell death Cells can adapt for future bouts Bone Scans Can show early stage stress fracture Shows stress reaction above average remodeling Superior to x ray for stress injuries Simple Fractures Heal in about 6 to 8 weeks Involve little or no bone displacement Induction Guide Study PSYC Exam 3510 1 st 3Edition Stimulus for bone regeneration Caused by decreases in oxygen leading to hypoxia or necrosis Disrupts and creates new bioelectric potentials Part of fracture healing hematoma and inflammation phase Influenced by electronegativity in areas of growth and repair Callus Formation Fibrocartilagenous tissue lasts for 3 weeks forms within 2 3 days Osteoblasts secrete woven bone distal end chondrocytes secrete hyaline cartilage proximal end fibroblasts secrete collagen in hematoma Serves to splint bone forms in and around fracture Osteoblasts in outer part lay down hard bone inner lays down trabecular If not immobilized has poor vascularization and incomplete repair Replaced by bony callus Inhibited by use of Tabaco Primary fractures heal without external callus Fracture Healing Hematoma and Inflamation o Bleeding from bone and tissue forms hematoma and starts inflammation o Induction stimulates regeneration o Inflamatory response mediated by cytokines and prostaglandins the neutrophils macrophages and lysosomes clean up fibrin mesh formed around site Capillaries grow in and bring fibroblasts Fibrocartilagenous Callus Formation Bony Callus formation and Ossification o Temporary collagen cartilage and woven bone replaced by osteoblasts o Callus replaced by lamellar bone o If not immobilized more cartilage laid down o Bone remodels for a long time o Stable at 40 days strength in 3 to 6 months Osteoblasts Fill bone into callus scaffolding Secrete woven bone Secrete alkaline phosphatase during ossification Arrive from periosteum or endosteum in adults Trabecular bone Laid down by osteoblasts Guide Study PSYC Exam 3510 1 st 3Edition Porous bone replaces woven bone Bioelectric Effects Electronegative in areas of bone growth and repair allow inductance to trigger regeneration Stimulates osteoblasts Compression increases electronegativity Direct relation to rate of hard bone deposition Can be used to stimulate non union fractures Phagocytes and Lysosomes Remove damaged debris from injuries in bones muscles ligaments Helps healing and remodeling Part of inflammatory

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