UB ANA 113 - Final Exam Study Guide (19 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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This study guide outlines the last section of the course. The topics covered in the last section include the respiratory, endocrine, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. All relevant figures can be found on UB Learns.


Pages:
19
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Course:
Ana 113 - Human Anatomy
Human Anatomy Documents
Unformatted text preview:

ANA 113 Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 26 27 and 30 38 Lectures 26 and 27 Respiratory Nasal cavity o Boundaries Roof Composed of nasal ethmoid and frontal bones Made of hyaline cartilage Anterior External openings nares nostrils Posterior Nasopharynx upper portion of pharynx throat Connects to middle ear by auditory tube Inferior Floor hard palate composed of maxilla and palatine bones Continuous with soft palate Lateral Skin is lined with mucous membrane Contain conchae shelf like projections of underlying bone turbinate Beneath conchae are openings meatuses for drainage of paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal ducts Septum Medial wall of nostrils composed anteriorly of cartilage and posteriorly of bone vomer and ethmoid o Lining Mucosa pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Goblet cells found in mucous membrane of epithelium Blood vessels very vascularized Olfactory epithelium specialized nerve cells and fibers CN1 in roof o Function Warms air blood vessels Moistens humidifies air mucous membrane Cleanses air cilia and mucus Sound resonance Sense of smell olfactory epithelium responds to chemicals in air and relays info to brain CN1 Paranasal sinuses o Location found in various bones Frontal Ethmoid Spenoid Maxillary o Function Lessen weight of cranial bones Sound resonance Lined with mucous membrane Pharynx o Structure and location Funnel shaped passageway approximately 5in in length Connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx and esophagus Composed of skeletal muscle Lined with mucous membrane composed of stratified squamous epithelium o Divisions Nasopharynx Uppermost and posterior to nasal cavity Contains opening for auditory tube Contains pharyngeal tonsils adenoids Oropharynx Middle portion Posterior to oral cavity Contains lingual and palatine tonsils Laryngopharynx Lowermost portion Region where food is directed posteriorly into esophagus and air is directed anteriorly into larynx Larynx connects laryngopharynx with trachea o Location C4 6 vertebral level o Structure Triangular shaped box composed of cartilaginous plates Thyroid cartilage Adam s apple prominent anterior plate Cricoid cartilage signet ring shaped cartilage located inferior to thyroid cartilage Epiglottis leaf shaped plate of cartilage inferiorly attached to thyroid cartilage deflects solids into the esophagus away from larynx Vocal cords Bands of elastic connective tissue Attached to aryteroid cartilage of larynx Vibrate as air passes over them to produce sound Glottis opening between the vocal cords Trachea windpipe o Location Anterior to esophagus Connects larynx to bronchi o Structure Composed of 16 20 C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage Fibrous connective tissue composes posterior wall Rigid yet flexible keeps airway patent but allows for expansion of esophagus Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Bronchial tree series of respiratory tubes o Primary bronchi Begin at the sternal angle Trachea bifurcates into left and right primary bronchi Composed of rings of cartilage lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and some smooth muscle o Secondary lobar bronchi One for each lobe of the lungs Increase in amount of smooth muscle o Tertiary segmental bronchi One for each bronchopulmonary segment Cartilage gradually decreases as smooth muscle increases Compose of cuboidal like epithelium o Terminal bronchioles only smooth muscle and epithelium no cartilage Lungs o Surfaces Medial hilum region where pulmonary vessels and bronchi pass into lung tissue Costal in contact with ribs anterior surface Apex extends above clavicle Base inferior concave fits over convex dome of diaphragm o Pleura Visceral pleura adheres directly to the surface of the lung Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity Pleural cavity space between pleura contains pleural fluid o Extent of lungs and pleura Rule of 2 s Midclavicular line anterior Midaxillary line lateral Midscapular line posterior Lung Rib 6 Rib 8 Rib 10 Pleura Safe Removal th Rib 8 7 intercostal space Rib 10 9th intercostal space Rib 12 11th intercostal space o Divisions Lobes Left lung 2 lobes Right lung 3 lobes Bronchopulmonary segments small portions of lung tissue supplied by Tertiary bronchus Pulmonary arteriole Pulmonary venule Alveoli functional unit of lung Type 1 cells simple squamous epithelium Type 2 cells produce a detergent like substance called surfactant prevents alveolar walls from sticking together Macrophages remove dust and debris Surrounded by capillaries Gas exchange gases must pass through respiratory membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium of both capillary and alveoli Muscles of respiration o Diaphragm Thin dome shaped sheet of skeletal muscle Separates thoracic and abdominal cavities Supplied by phrenic nerve C3 5 Contains 3 openings hiatuses for aorta esophagus and inferior vena cava o Intercostal muscles Located between ribs Internal and external layers of skeletal muscles Control of breathing o Nervous system Respiratory centers in brainstem pons and medulla Hypothalamus has some input to these centers due to its role in body temp regulation CNS and PNS motor neurons control contraction of diaphragm and intercostals Baroreceptors of lungs respond to pressure changes and stretch o Peripheral chemoreceptors Carotid body near bifurcation and aortic bodies aortic arch respond to changes in pH of the blood due to CO2 levels CN IX and X transmit messages to brain Mechanism of breathing o Inspiration Contraction of diaphragm flattens and lowers and external intercostal muscles elevates ribs up and out Increases the dimension of the thoracic cavity which decreases the air pressure within the lungs allowing air to flow into the lungs o Expiration Relaxation of diaphragm rises and external intercostals ribs go down and in Decreases the dimension of the thoracic cavity which increases the air pressure within the lungs allowing air to flow out of the lungs Forced expiration abdominal muscles and internal intercostals contract Lecture 30 Endocrine Characteristics of endocrine glands o Secretion of hormones chemical messengers regulators which affect the activity of other cells o Ductless secrete products directly into the bloodstream o Highly vascularized o Target specific tissues o Have a slow but long lasting effect Control o Negative feedback hormone level secretion hormone level gland stops producing hormone o Neural control the hypothalamus secretes releasing factors that stimulate


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