UW-Madison POLISCI 106 - Mexico II (6 pages)

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Mexico II

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Mexico II


This lecture describes how Mexico's political system is set up, and how its election process has changed over the years. It also talks about how the INE has impacted the election process in Mexico.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Polisci 106 - Introduction to Comparative Politics
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POLI SCI 106 1st Edition Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture 1 2006 Election in Mexico 2 Incumbency Advantage 3 Clientelism 4 Interest Representation 5 Electoral Fraud 6 Why Elections Parties Legislatures 7 Beatriz Magaloni Voting for Autocracy 2006 8 Jennifer Gandhi Political Institutions Under Dictatorship 2008 9 Political Institutions Under Dictatorship 10 The Wind of Change Outline of Current Lecture 1 Mexico Since 2000 2 Partido Accion Nacional PAN 3 Partido de la Revolucion Democratica PRD 4 Mexico Since 2000 continued 5 Mexico s Political System 6 Executive Under PRI 7 Executive Today 8 Legislature 9 Judiciary 10 Federalism 11 Election Reform 12 National Electoral Institute INE 13 INE s Tasks 14 Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judicial Branch TEPJF 15 Office of the Special Prosecutor for Electoral Crimes 16 Evolution 17 Anti Fraud Measures Current Lecture Mexico II Mexico Since 2000 Tolerance of undemocratic practices has declined These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Functioning of institutions scrutinized intensely Held to higher standards than before Higher profile of other political parties Partido Accion Nacional PAN Wins 2000 presidential elections Felipe Calderon Also won 2006 elections Places 3rd in 2012 presidential election Importance incumbents are kicked out of office Conservative Christian Democratic Party advocates free enterprise smaller government social conservative positions Partido de la Revolucion Democratica PRD Leftist Center Left Strongholds less developed regions of central and southern Mexico Lost 2006 by 0 58 Second 32 in 2012 candidate Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador Key players Vicente Fox Felipe Calderon Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador Mexico Since 2000 continued More competitive and pluralistic political system Remember transition happened under a veil of government continuity Hence issue of institutional design not question of complete overhaul but how to improve existing institutions Mexico s Political System On paper Mexico s govt structured much like US presidential system 3 branches of govt checks and balances federalism Under PRI very different in practice little democratic accountability office holders not elected but effectively appointed by higher ups in PRI hence not responsible to any broad constituency highly centralized president dominant Executive Under PRI During PRI era use of metaconstitutional powers Presidentcialismo describes range of formal and informal powers president above the constitution dominates institutions the people in them and their decisions Supreme Court never questioned president Congress never challenged presidential appointees President had informal power to seat and unseat state governors majors and members of Congress even next presidential candidate Executive Today Presidential system president directly elected one 6 year term nonrenewable president s powers formally constrained Key achievement of transition constitution now being applied President s powers legally and practically limited But still the most powerful politician head of state and govt leader of foreign policy Supreme Commander of armed forces selects Cabinet appoints wide range of public officials can initiate legislation can veto a bill or request that it be amended 2 3 of both chambers can override Enrique Pena Nieto began 6 year term as president of Mexico in 2012 member of the PRI but not the same way it used to be Legislature Chamber of Deputies lower house 500 members serve 3 year terms non renewable Mixed electoral system 300 members SMD single member districts 200 members PR proportional representation responsible for nearly all public policy high levels of party discipline Senate upper house 128 members 6 year terms non renewable Mixed electoral system 96 elected in 3 member districts 2 seats for winning party 1 for second place 32 elected using PR Exclusive powers in foreign affairs approves international treaties can remove state governors and legislatures high levels of party legislature for legislation to pass both chambers have to agree on identical final text Judiciary Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation Justices nominated by president approved by senate 15 year terms non renewable used to be subordinate would not rule against president under PRI rule remains weakest branch of govt legacy from PRI era but ongoing reforms have been strengthening the court Federalism Federal system but still highly centralized Each level of govt federal 31 states 2 378 municipios has less power and money than the one above federal govt controls about 90 of total revenues political centralism contributor to long term political stability under PRI Since 1984 some limited efforts to decentralize some subnational revenue autonomy devolution of authority for education and health care Resistance to decentralization issue of funding limited ability collect revenue taxes locally State level elections have no democratized like federal ones some quasi authoritarian local enclaves Election Reform One key to democratization electoral reforms agreed in 1990s under popular pressure Goal to end vote fraud made traditional type of fraud virtually impossible created Instituto Federal Electoral IFE organizing elections provide access to media allocating public funds for campaigns training people to run polling places and count votes 2000 election masterpiece of logistical and administrative efficiency Schedler 2000 see also Pastor 2000 party reps at 93 8 of polling sites 36 000 national 800 international observers 16 000 asistentes resolve 97 4 of complaints on the spot sophisticated system publishes publicly computed results online as they come in public receives identical info simultaneously with election authorities Before elections organized by Sec of the Interior no public trust 1988 challenger close to PRI candidate computers failed ballots burned afterwards domestic and foreign pressure for reform 1989 and 1990 new election law IFE and TRIFE National Electoral Institute INE changed name from IFE same thing functions remain the same independent from government guarantee fairness General Council most important body 11 nonpartisan counselors representatives from the political parties Same at the state and district level INE s Tasks organize elections at the federal level voting ID draw electoral districts public funding for political parties 30

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