VCU HPEX 250 - Module 12 (5 pages)

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Module 12



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Module 12

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School:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Course:
Hpex 250 - Medical Terminology
Medical Terminology Documents
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HPEX 250 Module 12 The eye Section 2 Pathologic Conditions Lesson 1 Vision and Movement Abnormalities Hyperopia Myopia and Diplopia Emmetropia Em o The state of normal vision Hyperopia o Farsighted Myopia o Nearsighted opia o Vision Diplopia o Double dipl o vision Nyctalopia Presbyopia Retinitis Pigmentosa Nyctalopia o poor night nyctal o vision o poor vision in faint light Presbyopia o Imparied vision as a result of aging Retinitis Pigmentosa o Hereditary progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes Ophthalmoplegia Nystagmus and Strabismus Ophthalmalgia o Vision and eye movement Ophthalmoplegia o When the eye muscle is actually paralyzed plegia o Paralysis doplegia o Paralysis of the iris Photophobia phot o light phobia abnormal fear or aversion to specific things o being abnormally sensitive to light Nystagmus o Involuntary jerking movement of the eye Strabismus o Abnormal condition of squinting or crossed eyes o Caused by visual axes not meeting at the same point o Amblyopia Complication of the strabismus The vision in one eye is reduced due to its misuse or disuse Ambly o dim or dull Changes in Refractive Structures of the Eye Astigmatism o A defective curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye cornea or lens Cataract o Clouding of the lens of the eye o Gives patients vision a watery appearance o Can lead to 2 or more malfunctions Phacomalacia Softnening malacia of the lens phac o Usually the result of a soft cataract Aphakia Condition ia of having no a lens phak o at all Can be congenial or be the result of surgical extraction of a cataract Can be corrected by surgical placement of an intraocular lens Pseudophakia Condition ia of the presence of a false pseudo lens Creating a corrected condition o Leukocoria White pupil Lesson 2 Eye Infections Inflammatory Eye Disorders Endophthalmitis o Generalized inflammation itis within endo the eye ophthalm o Blepharitis o Localized inflammation of the eyelid Conjunctivitis o Pinkeye o Inflammation of the conjunctiva Xerophthalmia o Condition of a dry xer o conjunctive and cornea o Caused by a vitamin A deficiency Pinguecula o Yellow mass on the conjunctiva that seems to be caused by environmental irritants i e UV light dry air or dust Dacryocystitis o Inflammation of the tear sac or lacrimal sac dacry o cyst o Keratitis Iritis Corneoiritis Keratitis o Inflammation of the cornea Iritis o Inflammation of the iris Corneoiritis o Inflammation of the cornea and iris Other Inflammatory Eye Disorders Sty o Hordeolum o Infection of the oil gland of the eyelid Sclerokeratitis o When inflammation infects the cornea and sclera Photoretinitis o Inflammation of retina caused by extreme light Lesson 3 Obstructions Malformations Growths and Tissue Changes Blepharoptosis Chalazion Blepharoptosis o AKA Ptosis o Drooping of the eyelid Chalazion o An obstruction of the oil gland of the eyelid o Meibomian cyst Pterygium Ophthalmorrhagia Pterygium o Abnormal fold of the membrane extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea Ophthalmorrhagia o Rapid bleeding or hemorrhaging from the eye Scleromalacia Phacomalacia Anisocoria Retinoblastoma and Detached Retina Scleromalacia o Softening malacia of the sclera o Keratomalacia Softening of the cornea Anisocoria o Condition ia of unequally an is o sized pupils cor o o Sometimes the result of pressure on the optic nerve from either trauma or lesion o An be congenial present at birth or and not represent a visual impairment o Isocoria Condition of pupils of equal size Retinopathy o Any disease pathy of the retina o Retinoblastoma Tumor arising from the developing retina cell o Detached Retina Separation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye Macular Degeneration Progressive deterioration of the proportion of the retina called macula lutea resulting in vision loss HPEX 250 Module 12 The Eye Section 3 Diagnostic Procedures and Therapeutic Interventions Keratometer Pupilloscope Keratometer o Measure the cornea for fitting contact lenses Pupilloscope o Used to visually examine the pupil o Retinoscopy Visual examination of the retina to determine refractive error Ophthalmoscope Examines the interior of the eye Optometer o Measures the power and range of vision Optometry o Measurement of vision visual activity and the prescribing of corrective lens Tonometer Measure the pressure in eyes tono tension or pressure Fluorescein Angiography o Injection of a dye is used in conjunction with a digital camera to record the vessels of the retina to confirm suspected retinal disease Glaucoma Testing Miotic o Agent that constricts the pupil Mydriatic Agent o Dilates the pupil Lesson 2 Therapeutic Interventions Keratectomy Keratoplasty and Blepharoplasty Keratectomy o Photorefractive Keratectomy PRK Procedure in which a laser is used to reshape the corneal surface by removing the a portion of the cornea Keratoplasty o Surgical repair of the cornea or a transplant Blepharoplasty o Surgical repair of the eyelid Cryoextraction Phacoemulsification Cryoextraction of the lens o Surgical procedure in which the cataract is lifted from the eye with an extremely cold probe cryoprobe cry o cold Phacoemulsification o Another method for removing cataracts o Involves the use of a ultrasonic needle probe to break up the lens which is the aspirated Surgical Procedures for the Retina Cryoretinoplexy o When a detached retina is repaired by surgical fixation of the retina using extreme cold in the form of carbon dioxide Scleral buckling o Reattaches the retina using a cryoprobe and a silicone sponge to push the sclera in toward the retinal wall Retinal Photocoagulation o Repair of retinal detachment or tears glaucoma wet macular degeneration or intraocular tumors using and intense precisely focused laser beam The light beam condenses retinal tissue to either seal leaking blood vessels destroy abnormal tissue or to bond the retina to the back of the eye Surgical Procedures for the Sclera Iris Eyeball and Adnexa Sclerotomy o An incision into the sclera Iridectomy o Excision of part of the iris Iridotomy o Simple incision into the iris Iridosclerotomy o Incision into both the edge if the iris and into the sclera Dacryocystorhinostomy o Creation of an artificial opening stoma between the tear dacry o sac cyst o and the nose rhin o to restore drainage when the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed or obliterated Enucleation o The surgical removal of any entire organ that comes out clean and whole the


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