VCU HPEX 250 - Module 16 Endocrine System (7 pages)

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Module 16 Endocrine System



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Module 16 Endocrine System

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7
School:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Course:
Hpex 250 - Medical Terminology
Medical Terminology Documents
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HPEX 250 Module 16 The Endocrine System Section 1 Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 1 Endocrine System Overview o Endocrinology Endocrine Secreting substances internally Endocrinology The study of the endocrine glands Endo Within Crine and crin o To secrete Glands Aden o o Endocrine System Organs Pituitary Glands pituitar o Pineal Gland Thyroid Gland thyroid o thyr o Parathyroid parathyroid o Thymus Adrenal Glands Pancreas Pancreat o o Endocrine vs Exocrine Endocrine Ductless Secrete hormones into the bloodstream through a glandular membrane Exocrine Deliver their secretions through a duct Exo means out and away Sweat glands are exocrine glands Produce a transparent watery liquid that travels through a duct to the surface of the skin o Categories of hormones Protein Hormone formed from amino acids Steroid Hormone formed from the lipid cholesterol o Target Tissue Specific tissues that hormones work by affecting o Hormone Function Hormones interact with target tissues by binding to receptors on or within the surface of the tissues cells Receptors Enable the tissue to recognize and respond to specific hormones o Erythropoietin Substance that stimulates the production of red blood cells Lesson 3 Anterior Pituitary Gland o Pituitary Gland Pituitar o Supplies hormones that effect almost every bodily function AKA master gland and hypophysis cerebri Small pea shaped gland attached to the undersurface of the hypothalamus in a depression of the skull called sella turcica Consists of two major lobes Anterior Lobe o Adenohypophysis o Upward extension of the pharynx composed of glandular tissue Posterior Lobe o Neurohypophysis o Downward projection of the brain composed of nervous tissue o Hypothalamus in the Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Activates integrates and controls the endocrine processes somatic functions and peripheral autonomic nervous system Exerts an important function on the pituitary gland o It targets the organ o It controls the secretion of the anterior pituitary lobe by secreting release inhibiting hormones Produces hormones that transported to the posterior pituitary lobe o Where they can be stored until needed o Growth Hormone Somatotropin Affects the growth of the skeletal muscles and the long bones of the body Promotes the synthesis of proteins preforms cell repairs and helps maintain blood glucose levels o Prolactin Releasing Lactogenic Hormone Another hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary lobe Stimulates the growth and development of the mammary glands Causes each mammary gland in the breast to produce milk after childbirth o Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Thyrotropin o ACTH Substance secreted by the anterior pituitary lobe Controls the release of the thyroid hormone Stimulates that growth and function of the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Target Tissue Outer portion of the adrenal gland Adrenal cortex tropic turning toward or changing Stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and causes it to secrete 3 steroid hormones including cortisol o FSH LH MSH Gonadotropic Hormones Anterior Pituitary Lobe has 2 to target the gonads or the sex glands o Follicle stimulating hormone Stimulates the growth of the ova Eggs in females Sperm in males o Luteinizing Hormone Causes the secretion of sex hormone in men and women Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone Stimulates the process of ovulation Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Affects the skin s pigment producing cells Posterior Pituitary Glands and Pineal Glands o ADH Oxytocin Antidiuretic Hormone Decreases the production of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water by the renal tubules Vasopressin o Synthetic ADH o Used in the treatment of diabetes insipidus Oxytocin Serves an important function in women during the process of labor and delivery Stimulates the smooth muscle of the uterus to contract Responsible for the release letdown of milk from the mammary glands in response to an infant s suckling o Pineal Gland Housed in the cranial cavity Cone shaped structure Melatonin Only hormone secreted by the into the blood stream by the pineal gland Lesson 5 The Thyroid Parathyroid and Thymus Glands o Thyroid Gland Largest endocrine gland in the body Located in the anterior neck and the front and sides of the trachea Just below the thyroid cartilage Consists of a right and left lobe connected in the middle by a narrow strip of tissue called isthmus o Thyroid Hormones Triiodothyronine T3 Tetraiodothyronine Thyroxine T4 Synthesized from iodine Increase metabolic rate o Parathyroid Gland Tiny structures embedded in the posterior lobes of the thyroid gland o Thymus Gland Lies in the mediastinum beneath the sternum Organ of the lymphatic system Secretes a hormone called thymosin Stimulates the development of the immune system and the production of lymphocytes Relatively much larger in children than adults Lesson 6 Adrenal Glands o Adrenal Glands AKA Suprarenal Glands Consists of two regions Outer portion Adrenal Cortex o Secretes 3 types of steroid hormones Corticosteroid Mineralocorticoid Produced in the outer layer AKA Zone Regulate the amount of mineral salts in the blood Aldosterone o Targets the kidney to increase the amount of sodium and decrease the amount of potassium in the blood Glucocorticoid Hormone secreted from cells in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex Main is cortisol hydrocortisone Inner part Adrenal Medulla o Secretes 2 important nonsteroidal hormones Epinephrine Adrenaline Norepinephrine Noradrenaline Help the body respond to stress by elevating blood pressure increasing heart rate dilating the bronchial passages increasing the respiratory rate and making more glucose available to the cells Lesson 6 Pancreas o Pancreas Pancreat o A long gland that stretches across the posterior wall of the upper abdomen Composed of both endocrine and exocrine tissue Is an exocrine gland Aids in digestion of food Islets of Langerhans Cluster of cells scattered throughout the pancreas Form the endocrine portion of the gland Two types of cells o Alpha cells Secrete the hormone glucagon Antagonizes and opposes the effects of insulin When blood sugar levels are low glucagon stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose Also triggers the transformation of fatty acids and amino acids into glucose o Beta cells Produce insulin Lowers blood glucose levels by transporting glucose from the blood into cells and by stimulating the cells to burn glucose for energy Promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver


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