UT GOV 370L - Final Exam Study Guide (26 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


final exam

Study Guide
University of Texas at Austin
Gov 370l - Topics in American Government and Politics
Topics in American Government and Politics Documents
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GOVT 370L 1stEdition Exam 1 Study Guide Urban Politics Review Sheet I Chapter 11 Governing the fragmented metropolitan II Urban Sprawl low density residential development III the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low density and auto dependent development on rural land high segregation of uses e g stores and residential design features that encourage car dependency usually on edges of metropolitan region more you sprawl out the wealthier you get urban cores becoming more wealthy IV Why is it a problem V Residents of sprawling neighborhoods tend to emit more pollution per person and suffer more traffic fatalities VI Development is exploding but population is not growing as much VII Family size going down while house size is going up VIII Infrastructure to support sprawl is expensive IX Older areas decay X Environmental problems a Problems with sprawl air pollution traffic congestion and visual blight XI What social political problems or complications has it caused XII sprawl creates barriers Sprawl tends to replace public spaces with private spaces such as fenced in backyards Also there is a phenomenon known as white flight in which Some blame suburbs for what they see as a homogeneity of society and culture leading to sprawling suburban developments of people with similar race background and socioeconomic status What are some causes of it XIII XIV XV XVI People want to live in smaller communities Get away from violence in cities sprawled communities typically tend to pay less for property want of larger less expensive easily developed houses How does fragmentation of government encourage sprawl These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute XVII Acting on behalf of their residents local governments enact land use regulations to secure lifestyle preferences for low density suburban living environments while at the same time ensuring a high quality of public service provision XVIII What are some solutions to control growth i e linkage fees impact fees etc XIX put policies in place that promote high density population areas XX make sure that zoning does not protect urban sprawl XXI Portland Oregon why different XXII They have a have an urban growth boundary that separates Urban land and Rural land which directs development to the urban core XXIII Growth control XXIV Try to minimize sprawl the movement to regulate the pace and location of development continued to gain momentum people wanted the freedom to move where they please but not happy when their neighborhoods seem threatened by a steady stream of newcomers XXV Caps on the pace of new construction impact fees imposed on developers to pay some of the public costs of growth linkage fees developers pay for the link costs to development affordable housing schools daycare a Ventura County CA wealthy city in which voters passed initiatives to create urban growth boundaries designed to limit new development at the edges of the county s cities new rules made it so that land located within designated growth boundaries could not be rezoned for development until 2020 b Nevada 2002 conservation bond issued to protect open lands from unplanned sprawl c Portland Oregon aggressive growth control physical boundary to limit new connection on its edges Growth boundary XXVI Zero setbacks No setback from a sidewalk XXVII variations in the setback are encouraged to respond to building function and to create visual interest XXVIII adjacent to ground floor space designed for other uses buildings shall be set back from the back of the required sidewalk to provide a buffer between the sidewalk and building XXIX A porch starting close to the sidewalk to encourage neighbor interactions XXX Smart Growth Movement XXXI Came together around a collection of proposals designed to achieve balanced regional development by regulating land use and promoting community and environmental planning believe that local govt must take the lead in reducing the environmental effects of unregulated urban growth and unplanned land use building infrastructure in designated areas while simultaneously protecting other areas from development XXXII Principles of Smart Growth XXXIII XXXIV XXXV XXXVI XXXVII XXXVIII XXXIX XL XLI XLII XLIII Mix Land Uses encouraging residents to live where they work Take advantage of compact building design Create a range of housing opportunities and choices Create walkable neighborhoods Foster distinctive attractive communities with a strong sense of place Preserve open space farmland natural beauty and critical environmental areas Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities Provide a variety of transportation choices Make development decisions predictable fair and cost effective Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decision How is Austin doing Smart Growth XLIV Neighborhood Planning a Character of neighborhood important b Traffic management c Compact mixed use development d Infill development e Housing for range of incomes XLV Downtown Redevelopment XLVI Open Space Preservation reserved land XLVII Smart Growth Incentives XLVIII Robert Mueller Municipal Airport Redevelopment XLIX Why good does it go too far Does it not go far enough Why would some people dislike it L Smart growth values long range regional considerations of sustainability over a shortterm focus Its goals are to achieve a unique sense of community and place expand the range of transportation employment and housing choices equitably distribute the costs and benefits of development preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources and promote public health LI it can be too restrictive and it can inhibit growth and if does not go far enough is centralized growth LII is disliked because creating sustainable environments means spending more money up front and it is difficult to implement all of these things LIII Regional planning needed to spot the twin process of abandonment and new investment LIV Discouraging Plans for LV LVI LVII LVIII LIX LX LXI LXII LXIII LXIV LXV LXVI LXVII LXVIII Neighborhoods in zones Separation of housing based on cost Streets that funnel to larger streets only Wide streets that encourage cars and dangerous to pedestrians Dependence on autos for everything Encouraging Design for Mixed housing with neighborhood center perhaps commercial Limits on size design location rather than

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