UT Knoxville ARTH 183 - Final Exam Study Guide (13 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Final Exam/Exam 3 study guide includes summarized descriptions taken from class lectures of all the items featured on the "List of items on Exam 3" (covering handouts 14-20).

Study Guide
University of Tennessee
Arth 183 - Asian Art
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ARTH183 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 19 25 Lecture 19 November 5th Ming Dynasty China 1368 1424 The Forbidden City The Yuan Dynasty was never very stable lots of coups assassinations and large parts of the empire start to fall under the control of groups of bandit rebels eventually in 1368 the Mongols are overthrown and native Chinese rule begins again with the Ming Dynasty The 1st Ming emperor is the 1st Chinese emperor to originate in the peasant class a very autocratic paranoid ruler who carried out a series of deadly purges but also instituted policies and reforms to help the poor The Ming capital moves from Nanjing to Beijing with the 3 rd Ming emperor in 1420 who also builds a new palace to be the center of government and emperor s residence known today as the Forbidden City Forbidden City Beijing Founded Ming Dynasty 1407 CE The overall plan of Beijing circa the Ming Dynasty tried to correspond to a 12th c BCE plan from the Zhou post Shang period royal city rectangular shape streets aligned on north south east west axes form a grid multiple gateways palace located at center on north south axis there is a cosmographic orientation to the whole city and the Forbidden City within The central Imperial City is more exclusive than the city at large access to nobility court members producers manufacturers for court while the even more exclusive Forbidden City is nested inside The Forbidden City has a moat all the way around and all of the most important buildings located on its central north south axis including the 3 main throne rooms on an hourglass shaped terrace dais all of these buildings face south in a cosmographic arrangement and are approached from the south looking north reflects conception of the emperor as like the North Star that stays in one place while all the rest of the universe revolves around it In the general architectural principles that govern the Forbidden City complex elevation on terraces and more complex rooflines indicate a building of greater importance while scale suggests the emperor s might and is meant to impress Small gardens within the Forbidden City serve the same purpose as Northern Song monumental style landscape painting a mini retreat into nature arranged rock forms represent fake mountains water represents flowing rivers streams The southern area was more public associated with government used for holding court further back were more private living domestic spaces The emperor was the only non castrated male allowed in this area all others were eunuchs Mustard colored fired and glazed clay roof tiles show emperor s exclusive right to use this colors in his buildings and attire interior 5 clawed dragon motif is also only supposed to be used by the emperor Ming Dynasty Court Painting Att Dai Jin 1388 1452 The Hermit Xu You Resting by a Stream Ming Dynasty Ming Dynasty court artists drew on the Song Dynasty court style to try to create a link to Song rule the last dynasty of native Chinese rulers there wasn t a formal academy system of training for artists at this time but they could have a rank within the Gold Garment Guard Dai Jin was probably not a serving court artist but his style is reflective of it This is a large hanging scroll showing a man looking straight out at us with his clothing falling partially open to reveal his chest and stomach associated with the Daoist idea of the eccentric recluse When a figure looks straight out at the viewer it implies a real person not a generic type the subject is thought to be the hermit Xu You who lived in the time of a legendary emperor before historical records who invited him to come serve at court Xu You refused If Xu You is the subject then the painting would have completely different meaning depending on who was viewing it For an emperor speaks to emperor fulfilling his duty to actively seek out the very best to come serve him for someone outside of court either a scholar official who refused to serve or someone who couldn t land a position the message could be affirming how they were staying pure and above it all Similarities to Southern Song style See composition centralized around one corner use of axe cut texture strokes and similar ink wash techniques both are more dramatic styles Differences to Southern Song style Composition has more vertical thrust background area is more closed off as opposed to expanding into space there tend to be more narrative elements and a strong foreground focus Landscape elements are usually done just in black ink Suzhou and Ming Dynasty Urban Gardens The city of Suzhou became a center for literati painting during the Ming Dynasty despite being in a bad state at the dynasty s beginning it was in a good location for traffic of goods resulting in its wealth and highly educated population of merchants and noble families Garden of the Master of the Fishing Nets First constructed 1140 CE largely rebuilt in 18th c Qing Dynasty Area houses with whitewashed walls with unglazed grey roof tiles give no sense of what s going on inside a garden with a large pond and buildings incorporates plants arranged stone formations suggesting mountains viewing pavilions and graceful undulating walkways around the sides Gardens became more popular as China becomes more urbanized suggest an area of reclusion in the middle of the city They cease to be used as productive spaces to grow food and become a venue to display wealth in various ways Pebbles in courtyards were often used to create patterns and mosaics on the ground small windows with decorative grilles allow for interesting views out on landscape Lecture 20 November 10th Garden of the Master of the Fishing Nets Continued These were private gardens but in some cases you could pay a fee to come in they were gathering places for families and a social gathering location for the local elite to drink play games paint recite and write poetry do calligraphy Gardens often included references to other cultural forms through inscriptions of calligraphy auspicious symbols etc Ming Dynasty Literati Painting Shen Zhou 1427 1509 Poet on a Mountain Top Ming Dynasty ca 1490 1500 Shen Zhou was well educated and well connected and came from a wealthy notable family several generations of men in the family had enough money and land to not have to work in an official capacity the government sphere so they lived as retired scholars This was originally an album and is now a handscroll and is a collaborative work common for these forms in

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