SC BIOL 460 - The Urinary System (4 pages)

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The Urinary System

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The Urinary System


Acid-base balace continued and Urinary system introduced

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University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Biol 460 - General Physiology
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BIOL 460 1st Edition Lecture 30 Outline of Last Lecture I Transport of O2 in blood II Transport of CO2 in blood III Acid base balance Outline of Current Lecture I Acid base balance continued II Urinary System a Kidney i Nephron III Glomerular Filtration Current Lecture Acid base Balance continued 1 Carbonic acid volatile acid 2 Non volatile metabolic acids don t generally affect pH of plasma b c generally taken up by buffers generally bicarbonate a Lactic acid b Ketone body c Kidneys i Excrete protons into urine to prevent blood from being acidified ii Manufactures bicarbonate as buffer 3 Respiratory acidosis a Caused by hypoventilation 4 Respiratory alkalosis a Caused by hyperventilation 5 Chemoreceptors send sensory information to respiratory center a Respiratory rate PP of CO2 in blood between 39 and 41 mmHg 6 Metabolic acidosis a pH of blood is 7 35 These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute b uncontrolled diabetic ketoacidosis c loss of bicarbonate i stomach HCl ii small intestine pancreas releases pancreatic juice and contains bicarbonate which neutralizes stuff coming from stomach iii uncontrolled diarrhea substances going through stomach quickly and bicarbonate isn t utilized iv hyperventilation more CO2 blown off than usual rxn shift to left protons taken up pH of body fluids goes up 7 Metabolic alkalosis a pH of blood is 7 45 b excessive vomiting protons released into stomach are lost c hypoventilation more CO2 in system than usual rxn driven to right protons released pH comes down Urinary System Chapter Seventeen 1 composed of a kidney b two ureters i transport urine from kidney to urinary bladder ii smooth muscle in wall which undergoes peristalsis c bladder d urethra bladder drains through this 2 kidneys a main function is to regulate extracellular fluid environment of body b when produce urine allows kidneys to control blood volume which then regulates blood pressure i BV too great protected by baroreceptors c Regulate concentration of waste products in the blood d Regulate concentration of electrolytes in the blood e Regulate pH of the plasma f Cortex i Spongy look due to presence of many capillaries ii Renal corpuscle and proximal convoluted tubule g Medulla inner region i Striated or striped because tubules parallel to one another as well as capillaries h Renal thymus i Contains renal pelvis i Nephron functional unit of kidney i Two parts 1 Renal corpuscle a Ultra filtrate been filtered a lot b Glomerulus i Blood goes in through afferent arteriole into capillary into efferent arteriole c Renal Bowman s capsule i As result of filtration the ultra filtrate is produce by corpuscle into Bowman s capsule 1 Outer layer parietal 2 Inner layer visceral 2 Renal tubule a Proximal convoluted tubule i Wall is simple cuboidal with microvilli b Loop of Henle i Ascending limb ii Descending limb c Distal convoluted tubule i Shorter simple cuboidal with fewer microvilli d Collecting duct e Papillary duct releases final urine product into the renal pelvis f Peritubular capillary network Glomerular Filtration 1 2 3 Involves filtration membrane filter fluid of blood has to go through in order to form ultra filtrate a Three Layers i Fenestrated endothelium windows ii Basement membrane of endothelium 1 Contains a lot of glycoproteins iii Visceral layer of Bowman s capsule 1 Composed of podocytes a Pedicels Starling Forces to describe net filtration pressure a Pressure that forces fluids ions etc through filtration membrane into Bowman s capsule 10 mmHg b Fluid out pressure in capillary 37 mmHg osmotic pressure of ultra filtrate 0 c Fluid in pressure of ultra filtrate in capsule osmotic pressure of plasma 45 mmHg Glomerular filtration rate GFR volume of filtrate produced by both kidneys per minute a Average 120 mm per minute

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