UT Arlington NURS 3366 - Week 1 notes Basic Concepts (9 pages)

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Week 1 notes Basic Concepts



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Week 1 notes Basic Concepts

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Pages:
9
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Nurs 3366 - Pathophysiologic Processes: Implications for Nursing
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1 Nursing 3366 Pathologic Processes Implications for Nursing Basic Concepts of Pathophysiology Objectives outcomes DESCRIBE DISCUSS IDENTIFY 1 concepts underlying the nomenclature of physiology and pathophysiology 2 appropriate general application of those concepts to disease processes and situations Re sidebar other boxed info in all your lecture notes a Information in a sidebar box is generally not covered orally in lecture but is added knowledge for you or a review of previous info or Prep info b If the info in the box is prefaced by FYI you won t be responsible for it on a test c If there is no FYI preface the information IS eligible for test concepts material DO NOT FORGET TO STUDY THESE SIDEBAR NOTES d If a note says HOME STUDY that means we will NOT go over Outline for Lecture I Overview A Physiology B Pathophysiology C Examples II Some basic physiologic A Homeostasis B Compensation and decompensation III Pathophysiologic concepts terminology Some standard language usage A Disease vs disorder vs syndrome clarifications B Terms relating to elements leading up to a disease o AKA means also known as C Terms relating to causes of a disease o IE or ie means in other D Terms relating to course of a disease words E Sequela aftermath of a disease o eg means for example I Overview A mostly the B that C 1 2 II o this sign before a word means approximately Physiology study of functions processes that occur in body NORMAL processes Pathophysiology the study of the underlying changes in body physiology result from disease or injury FYI pathology pathophysiology come from Latin root word pathos suffering Examples physiologic amenorrhea versus pathophysiological amenorrhea physiologic albuminuria versus pathophysiological albuminuria Some basic physiologic concepts A Homeostasis maintenance of constant conditions in the body s internal environment 1 Cells must have constant supply of nutrients H2O O2 and exist in narrow pH temperature range 2 Maintaining homeostasis is essentially a balancing act the body is always trying to right itself when homeostasis is challenged by changes 3 These challenges to the body s balance are sometimes called stressors B Compensation and decompensation 1 The return to homeostasis after being challenged by a stressor is called similar words are adaptation healing etc a b 2 Compensation is achieved by the body s use of control mechanisms also called mechanisms Control compensatory mechanisms examples 1 Example of compensatory response to normal dailylife stressors if you run out of available glucose between meals can t eat immediately your body turns to the back up system of glycogenolysis breakdown of which is a form of stored glucose 2 Example of compensatory response to pathologic stressors if you ve lost a lot of blood massive bleeding or water dehydration the body uses certain compensatory techniques to keep remaining fluid volume circulating as effectively as possible temporary measures until the cause of the problem gets fixed a heart rate would b also arteries in your periphery arms and legs would constrict shunting whatever blood volume is left to the central areas that is to your most important organs brain heart lungs kidneys Other examples of compensatory mechanisms o If there is too much CO2 in your body for some reason control mechanisms in the respiratory centers of the brain increase respiratory rate so that CO2 exhalation is increased o If you have too much blood volume or the pressure in your arteries is too high over a long period of time 1 the heart will need to pump with more force to eject blood into your arteries 2 to do this it will have to shore up its muscle this is called muscle hypertrophy the heart muscle compensates for the extra stressors by undergoing hypertrophy o Checks and balances example 1 part of the inflammatory response to a cut on the toe is to begin the clotting process 2 if the clotting process continued indefinitely the whole body would be one big clot 3 so the fibrinolytic system that dismantles a clot is the check and balance to the clotting process 4 summary control mechanism to bleeding clotting check to the clotting fibrinolytic system 2 III If the body is unable to appropriately meet the challenge of stressors for example if the control mechanisms are exhausted compensation can deteriorate either rapidly or slowly into the failure to compensate adapt heal etc Pathophysiologic concepts terminology A Disease vs disorder vs syndrome 1 a disease is a harmful condition of the body and or mind a disorder is a disturbance in the healthiness of the body a syndrome is a collection of symptoms 2 for this class these terms will be basically interchangeable as they all are a disturbance in body homeostasis most of the time I will use the term disease or abbreviate as dz B Terms relating to elements leading up to a disease 1 risk factors a factors that or contribute to and or increase probability that a dz will occur setting the stage b ex heredity age ethnicity lifestyle smoking eating habits etc environment 2 precipitating factor a a condition or event that triggers a pathologic event or disorder the kick off b ex an asthma attack can be precipitated by exertion 3 C Terms relating to causes of a disease 1 the cause of a disease includes all factors that contribute to development of dz examples a etiology of AIDS HIV human immunodeficiency virus b etiology of rheumatic heart disease autoimmune reaction c TB tuberculosis mycobacterium 3 idiopathic dz with unidentifiable cause 4 problem occurs as result of medical tx ex if kidney failure is due to improper use of antibiotics prescribed by a healthcare provider you could say the etiology of the kidney failure was iatrogenic 5 problems result as consequence of being in hospital environment ex urinary tract infection is called a nosocomial infection if it developed while patient was in the hospital D Terms relating to course of a disease 1 Clinical manifestations ie S S the demonstration of the presence of a sign and or symptom of a disease a signs manifestations that can be objectively identified by a trained observer b symptoms subjective manifestations that can only be reported by the person experiencing them pain nausea fatigue note most often on a patient chart signs and symptoms appear as S S or S S also often in medical vernacular symptoms is used as a shortcut instead of saying signs and symptoms c local versus systemic S S 1 some S S are local redness swelling heat


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