UT Arlington NURS 3366 - GU & renal(1) (19 pages)

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GU & renal(1)



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GU & renal(1)

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Pages:
19
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Nurs 3366 - Pathophysiologic Processes: Implications for Nursing
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1 Nursing 3366 Pathologic Processes Implications for Nursing Lecture Notes Disorders of the Genitourinary and Renal Systems Objectives outcomes for this subject 1 the relationship between key aspects of normal genitourinary function and the pathophysiology involved in select genitourinary related conditions including female specific disorders endometriosis ovarian cancer PID UTIs male specific disorders testicular cancer benign prostatic hyperplasia prostate cancer nongender specific problems STIs urologic obstructions 2 the relationship between key aspects of normal renal function and the pathophysiology involved in select renal conditions including hydronephrosis glomerulonephritis acute kidney injury AKI previously known as ARF acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease 3 signs and symptoms related to above pathological conditions including significance of diagnostic test results used to evaluate and monitor renal and genitourinary function such as PSA BUN creatinine urinalysis creatinine clearance 4 basic treatment modalities of the above pathologies Outline I II I A Disorders of genitourinary function A Male specific GU problems 1 BPH 2 prostate cancer 3 testicular cancer 4 infection B Female specific GU problems 1 menopause 2 uterine related problems 3 ovarian cancer 4 infection PID UTI C Non gender specific issues 1 STIs HOME STUDY 2 urologic obstructive disorders Renal disorders A Overview of normal kidney purpose and function 1 the kidneys have dozens of jobs 2 maintenance of balance homeostasis of fluid solute status of body 3 maintenance of certain metabolic functions B The spectrum of renal compromise C Chronic kidney disease Disorders of genitourinary GU function Note because the A P of many of the following reproductive structures overlap with those of the urologic system they are often lumped together with terms such as genitourinary or urogenital Male specific 1 BPH enlarged prostate 2 a proliferation of prostate glandular tissue that is a common age related change begins at age 40 45 and continues until death by age 60 60 of men have an enlarged prostate b S S 1 as the gland enlarges it can compress the urethra where it passes through the prostate resulting in varying degrees of obstruction to urinary flow 2 S S include urgency delay in starting urine flow decrease in flow of urine urine retention c diagnosis 1 history of S S 2 enlarged prostate is felt on digital rectal exam should be done yearly beginning at age 50 3 sometimes PSA elevated d treatment 1 certain meds geared towards decreasing size of prostate 2 also surgery to decrease size TURP transurethral resection of the prostate a certain amount of hyperplastic tissue is resected meaning surgically removed 2 Sometimes PSA is elevated in BPH but more commonly a high PSA is related to cancerous elevated injury of prostate prostate cancer a malignant neoplastic condition of the prostate gland b the most common cancer in American males c risk factors include age over 50 family history a diet high in saturated fat high testosterone levels promotes tumor growth d S S similar to BPH may not be present until the disease is advanced e often dx d by elevated PSA prostate specific antigen 1 tumor marker that is specific to the prostate gland and will be when there is an inflammatory or malignant process of the occurring 2 this is measured yearly in men over 50 to screen for prostate cancer f 3 yearly routine screening should be done starting between age 40 50 with PSA and rectal examination of the prostate testicular cancer a malignant neoplastic condition of the testicle b occurs most commonly in age range 15 35 higher incidence in males with c unresolved undescended testes because a testis that remains in the abdomen cannot be checked regularly for signs of cancer testicular cancer can be detected early when regular self exam done S S 1 painless testicular mass is the usual presenting sign 2 may have testicular heaviness or dull ache in the lower abdomen d detection treatment 1 has a cure rate of 95 when caught early testicular self exam should be done monthly for early detection 3 2 4 as surgery radiation or chemotherapy infection a urethritis inflammation discomfort in penis sometimes dysuria occasionally a discharge b prostatitis inflammation infection of prostate same S S as aboveurgency delay in starting urine flow decrease in flow of urine urine retention c both most often caused by sexually transmitted infections STIs such Chlamydia gonorrhea d treatment antibiotics B Female specific 1 uterine related problems a general flow disturbances 1 dysmenorrhea a general term for menstruation that is more painful frequent and or larger in bleeding volume than is normal b most often cause by hormonal disturbances but variety of other causes 2 amenorrhea absence of menses due to variety of causes ex anorexia over exercising in later life can mean onset of menopause b the chronic bleeding often infertility irritates the area sloughed off eventually causes is normal cavity via scarring that can wrap around organs and cause obstructions other dysmenorrhea problems 2 presence of functioning endometrium outside the uterus 1 affects 15 of women of reproductive age and can cause 2 3 4 5 caused by retrograde menstruation in addition to being with the menstrual blood via cervix vagina which endometrial tissue can abnormally escape into pelvic fallopian tubes this out of place endometrium responds to the menstrual hormones by proliferating and bleeding wherever it implants itself just as if it is still in the uterus S S include dyspareunia pain during intercourse pelvic pain treatment usually involves hormonal therapy and or surgery ovarian cancer malignant neoplastic condition of the ovaries with unknown etiology a causes the most cancer deaths related to the female reproductive classic I feel system by the time someone is diagnosed the cancer is bloated my pants have often advanced and treatment is difficult gotten tight b early S S very vague bloating mild abdominal discomfort around the constipation waist despite diminished 1 for this reason if not found early during yearly pelvic exams appetite and often metastasizes before can be diagnosed losing overall weight 4 2 vomiting metastasizes intra abdominally causing such symptoms as pain ascites especially from liver involvement dyspepsia alterations in bowel movements 3 infections a reproductive tract PID 1 an infection in a woman s reproductive tract is often called


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