TAMU OCNG 251 - Exam 4 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


Study guide covers concepts in the review and lectures for Exam four

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Ocng 251 - Oceanography
Oceanography Documents
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OCNG 251 Exam 4 Study Guide Ch 13 Biological Productivity I Photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis Respiration produces food consumes food stores energy releases energy consumes H2O produces H2O consumes CO2 produces CO2 releases O2 consumes O2 light dependent light independent In Photosynthesis plant cells capture light energy and store it as sugars The photosynthetic reaction is reversible respiration II Diatoms coccolithophores and dinoflagellates primary producers with distinctive character A Diatoms Micro tiny algae Length 50 m When they divide asexually the test splits into two parts like a pillbox Each half becomes a new diatom Tests are made of silica SiO2 glass most productive group of marine algae B Coccolithophores covered with small calcareous plates called cocoliths made out of calcium carbonate live in temperate and warmer surface waters C Dinoflagellates possess flagella structures for locomotion tests made out of cellulose which is biodegradable are in favorable areas for photosynthetic productivity great abundance they color surface waters red III Harmful algal blooms red tides Red tides and algal blooms that do not color the water red but are detrimental to marine animals humans and the environment toxic blooms can kill marine life and people who eat contaminated seafood IV Primary production polar mid latitude and equatorial differences in production A Polar Regions Productivity peaks during the summer and is limited by sunlight B Mid latitude Productivity peaks in the spring and fall and is limited by a lack of solar radiation in the winter and lack of nutrients in the summer C Tropical Regions Productivity is low year around and is limited by nutrients V Factors affecting distribution of productivity in the oceans light nutrients A Light Photosynthesis cannot proceed unless light energy is available B Nutrients the distribution of life through the ocean s bredth and depth depend mainly in the distribution of nutients such as nitrogen phosphorus iron silica that phytoplankton need VI Ecosystems and biotic communities producers and consumers A Producers some algae and bacteria B Consumers Heterotrophs VII Food chains and food webs Food web When a consumer eats foods from different trophic levels complex feeding relationships develop Food chains interconnect in a feeding sequence known as a food web which represents a network of food chains and thus provides stability to the ecosystem VIII IX Each species in an ecosystem can choose from a variety of food sources in a food web Energy flow and transfer efficiency in trophic systems Energy flow is unidirectional As biomass moves through the food chain there are losses at each level such that only a small percentage ultimately reaches the highest trophic levels Typical transfer efficiency 10 World fisheries and overfishing maximum sustainable yield A World Fisheries and overfishing Overfishing harvesting so much biomass that the remaining stock cannot reproduce fast enough to replenish itself about 30 of the world s fish stocks are now officially overfished B Maximum sustainable yield maximum amount of biomass that can be removed yearly and still be sustained by the ecosystem Ch 14 and 15 Pelagic and Benthic Animals I Strategies for survival floating swimming buoyancy adjustments mobility lunging versus cruising high swimming speed high body temperature Bioluminescence schooling synopsis II Soft gelatinous critters jellies anemones medusoid and polypoid shapes inhabit the lower zones III Types of symbiosis Commensalism smaller or less dominant participant benefits without harming its host Mutualism both participants benefit IV Parasitism the parasite benefits at the expense of its host Swimmers and squirters squid fish adaptations for mobility and speed A Squids move by trapping water in their mantle cavity between their pin like shell B Fish send a wave of curvature along their bodies to produce a forward trust V Migration and spawning of anadromous and catadromous species A Anadrmous spawn in freshwater and then migrate into the ocean to grow into maturity B Catadromous does the opposite lives in fresh water and enters salt water to spawn Most of the eels are catadromous VI White vs pink muscle tissue in fish most of the muscles in a fish consist of white muscles most salmon species these are pink ted muscles are aerobic while the white muscle is mostly anaerobic VII Mammals sirenia pinnipeds fissipeds cetaceans A Sirenia small order composed of just two extant families Dugongidae and Trichechidae with four current species B Pinnipeds animals in the infraorder Pinnipedia which is under the the order Carnivora and suborder Caniformia include all the seals sea lions and the walrus C Fissipeds split footed members of the order Carnivora and are more closely related to terrestrial carnivores D Cetaceans order Cetacea includes the marine mammals commonly known as whales dolphins and porpoises VIII Baleen and toothed whales and their differences A Baleen whales or odontoceti include sperm whales porpoises and dolphins active predators using echolocation B Toothed whales or mysticeti moustached whales have baleen instead of teeth cruisers and strainers C Deep diving and echolocation abilities Deep Diving Ability to store oxygen for deep dives Ability to reduce oxygen demand Low susceptibility to nitrogen narcosis Echolocation When the sound strikes an object some of the energy of the sound wave is reflected back towards the dolphin D Feeding reproduction and migration habits Migration the migration route of the Pacific Gray Whale is often described as the longest known mammal migration in the animal kingdom and is easily observed along the California coastline IX Reproduction strategies mammals arthropods fish Oviparous most fish and invertebrates lay eggs that hatch into larval forms Strategy lay lots of eggs and hope a few survive Ovoviparous Some fish and arthropod females keep their fertilized eggs aboard until they hatch e g lobster Viviparous Mammals give birth to live young provide placental nourishment to the embryo through an umbilical cord and usually post partum nourishment by nursing Strategy develop and protect a few offspring and help most of them survive X Benthic examples oysters and coral reefs A Oysters thick shelled grow best where there is a steady flow of clean water to provide plankton and oxygen B Coral Reefs Greatest known animal diversity of any marine community about 25 of all marine

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