VCU BIOL 218 - Final Exam Study Guide (6 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Chapters 16, 18 & 20

Study Guide
Virginia Commonwealth University
Biol 218 - Cell Biology
Cell Biology Documents

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Biol 218 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 16 Delta inhibitory signal Differentiates cells from one another signal received by notch Trimeric 3 protein subunits alpha beta gamma Play role in activating G protein Receptor stays active while signal is bound amplification Viagra sildenafil citrate Blocks PDE5 phosphodiesterase type 5 used to break down cGMP prolonged relaxation of smooth muscle If cGMP isn t broken down then it causes the widening of vessels leading to an erection Remember that prolonged signal prolongs its action Signaling Cascades formed by protein kinases tyrosine or serine threonine 1 Relay 2 Transduce amplify 3 Integrate 4 Distribute Ion Channel Coupled receptors Work when flow of ions across plasma membrane changes the membrane potential also produces an electric current Examples neurotransmitters at postsynaptic membrane Enzyme Coupled Receptors Either act as enzymes or associate with enzymes inside the cell Methods o Dimer activates catalytic domain o Signal molecule binds results in activated associated enzyme G protein coupled receptors activates membrane bound trimeric GTP binding proteins Process signal molecules binds to receptor is activated unbinds from receptor and binds to enzyme to activate it Can lead to drug dependence Maintains homeostasis by desensitizing after activation o Desensitization internalization degradation recycling receptor Largest type of cell surface receptors Where vast majority of drugs work 1 2 Are ancient because they are even found in bacteria There are more than 700 in humans and more of them are orphan receptors Essential signaling molecule is beta arrestin G1 inhibitory blocks G1 Associated with pertussis toxin whopping cough G protein targets ion channel Results in immediate change in state and behavior of cells These channels are regulated by polarization which inhibits electrical excitability Example used to slow down heartbeat o Acetylcholine is released and binds to GPCR on heart pacemaker cells

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