VCU BIOL 209 - Exam 4 study guide (2 pages)

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Exam 4 study guide

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Exam 4 study guide


Ch. 13, 16, 18-21, 23, 25

Study Guide
Virginia Commonwealth University
Biol 209 - Medical Microbiology

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BIOL 209 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide What advantage does a pathogen gain by having a structure which is similar to a host cell structure Molecular mimicry pathogens take advantage of the fact that lymphocytes don t recognize certain types of structures on or in our cells because self reactive T and B cells have been deleted killed or inactivated during development The pathogens resemble these structures and therefore are not recognized by the lymphocytes either Explain how pathogen infection can be related to autoimmunity Autoimmunity occurs when the immune system recognizes and attacks host tissue Pathogens can either initiate or exacerbate autoimmunity by stimulating activation of these lymphocytes Rheumatic fever and Diabetes Type I are examples of immunopathology associated with pathogen infection Compare and contrast inflammation at a site of infection sepsis and anaphylaxis Inflammation at the site of infection brings additional immune mediators to a localized site of infection Bacterial sepsis is a system wide infection that causes a systemic inflammatory response Inflammatory cytokines act on vessels throughout the body leading to loss of blood volume Anaphylaxis is the loss of blood vessel integrity with induced airway muscle contraction It is caused by a systemic release of cytotoxic and inflammatory mediators by tissue mast cells when surface bound IgE is aggregated Describe the immune response mechanism that leads to allergic symptoms How is anaphylaxis related to allergy An allergy is a strong immune response directed to otherwise innocuous but abundant substances such as pollen foods and drugs A general release of histamine causes systemic anaphylaxis Describe primary opportunistic zoonotic and obligate pathogens Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within a normal healthy host Opportunistic pathogens take advantage of deficient immune systems but do not usually cause disease in a healthy host Zoonotic pathogens

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