SC PUBH 102 - Final Exam Study Guide (15 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


What is PH?, Health Disparities, EPI Basics, Infectious Diseases, Gov't, Law & PH, US Healthcare System, Environmental Health, Global Health, Preparedness, Health Promotion

Study Guide
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Pubh 102 - Intro to Public Health
Intro to Public Health Documents
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Pubh 102 1nd Edition FINAL EXAM What is PH Definition o Fulfilling society s interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy o To promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling diease injury and disability o Successive re defining of the unacceptable o The P s prevention protection promotion prolonging product safety physical social and economic environments population Determinants of health bullseye o Risk Factors of health set of common causes of death disability illness and injury behavioral smoking poor diet lack of physical activity alcohol consumption etc more likely to be under the control of individuals at risk o Risk conditions of health More distal risk factors biological age sex genetics environmental safe community worksite adequate housing enforcement of policies and regulations less likely to be under the control of individuals o Lifestyle pattern of behavior more complex lifetime habits and social circumstances What kills us then and now o 1900 TB gastroenteritis diphtheria polio influenza pneumonia o 2010 heart disease cancer COPD stoke accidents Alzheimer s diabetes kidney disease flu pneumonia suicide Levels of prevention o Primary action taken to avert occurrence of disease o Secondary action taken to identify diseases at their earliest stages and to apply appropriate treatments to limit their consequences and severity o Tertiary specific interventions to assist diseased or disabled persons in limiting the effects of their diseases or disabilities also may include activities to prevent recurrence of a disease Socio Ecological Model o Bull s eye individual traits age sex race and biological factors The biology of disease o Ecological perspective multiple factors and pathways o Risk factors increase the likelihood of condition or disease o Social and cultural determinants social status and standing o Global health influences population pollution poverty and more Ten Great Achievements in PH 1900 1999 1 Vaccination 2 Motor vehicle safety 3 Safer workplaces 4 Control of infectious diseases 5 Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke 6 Safer and healthier foods 7 Healthier mothers and babies 8 Family planning 9 Fluoridation of drinking water 10 Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard EPI Basics PERI defined examples o Problem the what who and where 1 What I the burden of disease in terms of mortality morbidity and has it changed over time 2 Person and place description and distribution spread 3 Look for patterns and associations in the occurrence of disease condition so we can come up with hypotheses ideas about the cause o Etiology the why 1 What are the contributory causes 2 Determinants of Health underlying conditions not just causes 3 Risk probability chance an event will happen 4 Risk factors conditions exposure that is statistically related in some way to an outcome things whose presence are associated with increased chance that diseas condition will develop later It can be environmental social behavioral influences not just individual behavior It can be modifiable susceptible to change or non modifiable immutable to change It is more likely to be under control of an individual doesn t mean it is EASY to change though o Recommendations for Reducing Eliminating the PH Problem 1 What works to reduce the health impacts 2 What is the quality of the evidence for the intervention 3 What is the impact of the intervention in terms of benefits and harms 4 What do we know based on past experience o Implementation 1 How can we get the job done 2 When should the implementation occur 3 At whom should the implementation be directed 4 How should the intervention s be implemented Criteria for establishing cause o Has an association been established at the individual level o Does the cause precede the effect o Has altering the cause been shown to alter the effect Why measure health o To track diseases and condition to monitor health and quality of life to identify opportunities for prevention and protection to create surveillance systems and large national data bases and distribution of resources Types of Commonly Used Measures o Rates a measure of some event disease or condition in relation to a unit of population along with some specification of time To calculate a rate you must have accurate counts for numerator denominator a defined population and a specified period of time Formula for rate of events cases deaths population in the same area in a specified time period o Incidence number of new health related events of cases of a disease in a population exposed tot hat risk in a given time period Formula of new health related events cases of a disease of people exposed to risk during this period o Prevalence calculated by dividing all current existing cases of a disease old and new by the total population 3 Major US Trends since 1900 o Causes of mortality o Life expectancy Another common measure for health status Average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age may be determined by race sex or other characteristics using age specific death rates fro the populations with that characteristic ex Life expectancy at birth Overall health status improving specifically life expectancy at birth increasing birth outcomes better years of healthy life increasing racial ethnic disparities exist o Increasing Health Disparities Increasing in by ethnic and racial groups age groups gender SES poverty Educational Attainment Gov t Law Public Health Social Justice Market Justice Perspectives o o o o Role of law gov t in PH o To protect and promote health police and general welfare powers o Ensure rights of individuals Roles of health agencies o Local local public health agencies often called local health departments o State state health agencies such as health departments and humans service agencies o Federal National health agencies such as DHHS and its components Forces shaping governmental PH science and social values 1 Nature and perceived importance of threats and 2 Relationships among levels of government Health is hard to find in the US Constitution Relative roles of national state and local governments in health matters shift over time Social values shift over time as well Health Disparities Definitions of Categories of disparity according to HP 2020 o o o o o o Gender Disability Geographic Location Sexual Orientation Race Ethnicity Income Education Social Class Leading causes of death in US by race

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