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UGA BIOL 1108 - ConservationBiology

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BIOL 1108 1nd Edition Lecture 25 Outline of Last Lecture I. Learning ObjectivesII. In The NewsIII. Ecosystem IV. Thermodynamics V. Productivity VI. Energy Transfer VII. Biogeochemical Cycles Outline of Current Lecture I. Learning ObjectivesII. In The NewsIII. Levels of Biodiversity IV. Conservation at the Population LevelV. Conservation at the Landscape Level VI. Human Impacts on the EarthCurrent LectureI. Learning Objectives - Describe threats to biodiversity, including human impacts- Apply principles of biology to conservation and sustainable development practices These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.II. In the News: Why is it that the people of Tibet are able to survive at very high altitudes?III. Levels of Biodiversity - Goals of conservation: conserve diversity and ecosystem services= sustainable development - Field need to be integrated and accomplish goals include ecology, genetics, and economics.o Mix of life and social sciences to convince peopleo Stakeholders- governments, citizens, non-government organizations- Genetic Diversity (in a vole population)o Within and between populationo Adaptations to local conditions- Species Diversityo Interaction between species- Community and Ecosystem Diversityo Food chains, energy flows, and nutrient distributions- Endangered species: organisms in danger of extinction throughout all or a portion of its range- Threatened species: likely to become endangered - 4 Biggest Threats to Biodiversityo Habitat Loss 73% extinct, endangered, rare, vulnerable species are due to thiso Introduced species 40% of extinctions since 1750o Overharvestingo Global change Climate change Global warming Affected by CO2IV. Conservation at the Population Level - Population size- Genetic diversity - Critical habitat- Small populationso Concern- genetic diversity- Declining populationo Concern- environmental factors (biotic/abiotic)V. Conservation at the Landscape Level - Natural/ Gradual Edgeso Transition from forests to grasslandso Interior species, open habitat specieso Connectivity- corridors between hatches affect dispersal and optimal foraging - Hard/intermediate Edgeso Created by human activity o Reduce corridors - Biodiversity hot spots commonly located near the equator - SLOSS: Single Large Or Several Small Reserveso Controversy about which one is more beneficial Single Large- have better genetic diversity and more resources Several Small- limited resources, diversity depends on corridors and geographical barriers VI. Human Impacts on the Earth 1. Nutrient Enrichmenta. Fertilizer in the fieldi. Extra nutrients, like nitrogen2. Toxinsa. DDTi. Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring in 1960’s3. Greenhouse Gasesa. Global warming4. Depletion of Ozone (O3)a. Allow more radiation to enter Earth’s atmosphere VII. Everglades Ecosystem - Water flowo Redirecting water flow to agriculture and citieso Limits water to Everglades - Water and Nutrient Cyclingo Shifting from ridge to slough has an effect on the type of organisms that live in that areao Although this is usually a natural process, human use has made it worseo Phosphorous pollution has altered many communities - Effect of Global Climate Change o Experts expect water levels to rise by 1 m and the bottom portion of the Everglades to disappearo The wildlife would either go extinct or forced to move inward if the plant life adapts to the water


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