UT Arlington BIOL 3442 - Final Exam Study Guide (14 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


review from entire semester containing... homeostasis, cellular, membrane, neuron, nervous system, sensory, endocrine, muscle, circulatory, excretory, respiratory, fluid

Study Guide
University of Texas at Arlington
Biol 3442 - Principles of Animal Physiology
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BIOL 3442 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Final Exam Review Homeostasis o Stability balance equilibrium o Regulation receptor receives info integration center then effector sends signal o Feedback system positive and negative o Positive feed back amplify the chg in the variable o Negative feedback reverse direction of chg antagonistic control brings body back to homeostasis o Reset system negative fb in which a set point is adjusted temporary permanent or cyclic o Levels of homeostasis Cellular cells control own ion concentrations volume and internal energy Intrinsic tissues and organs self serving for the particular organ Extrinsic external to the organ can override cellular and intrinsic coordinated by NS and endocrine system o Animals either Control homeostasis strictly Avoid disturbances behaviorally Conform but do not adjust to chgs in environmental conditions o Krogh principle for a large number of problems there will be some similar of choice or a few such animals on which it can be most conveniently studied o Homeostatic systems NS Endocrine Integumentary Muscle Cardiovascular Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Cellular o Universal life components Water Carbon dioxide Lipids Amino acids Nucleotides o Components of a eukaryotic cell Nucleus control center and nuclear DNA Ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum protein factory Golgi complex processing plant modifies proteins Lysosomes cells digestive system breaks down organic material Peroxisomes oxidize toxins break down fatty acids into acetyl CoA Mitochondria power station krebs DNA independent Cellular respiration energy production glycolysis krebs Cytosol fluid surrounding organelles site of glycolysis Cytoskeleton provides structure to cells Extracellular matrix outside of cell holds cells and tissues together Cell junctions desmosomes tight junctions gap junctions Desmosomes strong meet a lot of abrasion little communication with small space between cell junction Tight junctions small molecules cant get through stomach lining Gap junctions proteins that form channels open and close brain heart tissues where cells talk w o nerves involvement Membrane o Phospholipid bilayer prevents things from crossing membrane O2 and glycose CO2 and H2O may cross o Proteins transmembrane protein channels allow molecules to pass membrane o Fluid mosaic model phospholipid bilayer embedded proteins cholesterol carbohydrates o Skeletal fence model membrane proteins are constrained tethered to membrane skeleton and limited by membrane skeleton o Diffusion movement of solutes of area of high concentration to an area of low concentration o Conduction charged particles moving from high to low concentration negative to positive or positive to negative o Osmosis diffusion by water moving water from high concentration to low concentration o Osmatic concentration molarity amount of mole of substance per volume of solution osmolality measure of osmoles of solute particles per volume liter of solution o Osmolality and tonicity both can compare the solute concentrations of 2 solutions separated by a membrane Osmolality doesn t have to have membrane take into account total concentration of all solutes property of a solution and is independent of membrane penetrating and non penetrating Tonicity takes into account total concentration of only non penetrating solutes property of solute with respect to water o Hyperosmotic comparing to something else o Hypoosmotic o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Isosmotic same of solutes on both sides no net movement of water same of solutes on both sides take into account is barrier is permeable to solutes Tonicity hypotonic solution the cell is in less solutes on outside compared to inside cell expands Tonicity hypertonic more solutes on outside compared to inside cell shrinks Tonicity isotonic same on inside and outside Membrane channel Allows movement of particles through membrane ions water other solutes Passive transport diffusion through bilayer facilitated concentration gradient Active transport moving against concentration gradient requires ATP energy Ligands intercellular chemical messengers Paracrines short ranged simple diffusion target adjacent cells Neurotransmitters short ranged released by neurons in reponse to an electrical signal targets neurons muscle or gland Hormones long ranged via circulatory system and secreted by endocrine glands ductless Neurohomones long ranged via circulatory system and secreted by neuro secretory neurons Pheromones released into the environment by glands target other animals of the same species Cytokines regulatory peptides generally involved in development or immunity short or long ranged All 6 can cross or fit more than 1 of these categories Polarization cell inside is more than outside Depolarization closer to equal w outside of the cell more Repolarization depolarized cell bring it back to polarized Hyperpolarized briefly goes lower Ion channels Voltage gated triggered by charge electrical stimuli Ligand gated triggered by chemicals Mechanically gated triggered by motion Thermally gated triggered by temp heat and cold types When opened one or two reactions occur graded or action potentials Graded potentials Depolarization occur in part of the cell membrane Stronger the trigger the stronger the depolarization Die out over short distances Action potentials Rapid and brief Large depolarization Nondecremental as travels stays same level Requires a threshold potential All or none response Stimuli has to give mV above threshold to induce a response o Ion channels and APs The flux of Na and K creates an AP Controlled by voltage gated ion channels on plasma membrane K channel has 1 gate and Na channel has 2 gates Gate 1 activation gate opens and Na rushes in quickly Gate 2 deactivation fate closes and stops Na rushing in Causes rapid depolarization in APs Normal resting state Na and K channels are closed K doesn t want to leave cell and Na doesn t want in bc of cell being inside and outside Neuron o Neuron contains cell body dendrites input axon hillock axon axon terminal o Contiguous conduction AP same strength of action depolarization o Absolute refractory period no other AP will fire o Relative refractory period no other AP will fire unless it is stronger than the original stimuli insures that its driven in 1 direction o Myelination helps signal from being lost or leaking out o Schwann cells have myelin sheath o Nodes of Ranvier between schwann cells

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