ISU CSD 175 - Final Exam Study Guide (8 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Everything you need to know for the Final. Plus focus on grammatical morphemes

Study Guide
Illinois State University
Csd 175 - Speech and Language Development
Speech and Language Development Documents
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CSD 175 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 20 25 Lecture 20 21 November 10th and 12th Terminology Review Language universals fundamental similarities across all languages consonants vowels Language variations the way languages of the world vary or differ o Ex Sentence Structure Primary Language language a person primarily uses to communicate usually refers to first language a person learns when born Dialects regional or social variations of a word that differ in pronunciation grammar and vocabulary Language Disorder significant difficulty with the development of language May reach milestones more slowly or not at all May experience deficits in form content and or use of language Over 6 000 languages worldwide Major ones English Spanish and Chinese Vocabulary content is greatest difference American English Regional Dialects Dialects are influence by two things 1 Language Contact process by which speakers of a language other than English shape the pronunciation grammar and vocabulary of English language 2 Population Migration when there is a migration of people from one dialectal region to another American English Sociocultural Dialects Culture rather than geography influences these dialects o Ex In American English the following social dialects exist African American Vernacular English Chicano English final z is denounced Jewish English yitish and Hebrew hard g s What is a standard language All dialects whether regional or socio cultural are simply variations from the standard form of English They are differences NOT a disorder Bilingualism How do people acquire two or more languages 1 Simultaneous acquisition child learns two languages at birth 2 Successive or Sequential Acquisition child will learn one language from birth and then a second language after that Code Switching Speakers who have more than one language alternate between the languages o Intrautterance mixing the alteration occurs within a single utterance Ex We play with mommies daddies brothers and hermanas o Interutterance mixing alternating languages in between the utterances Ex One whole sentence in English and the next in Spanish 3 reasons bilingual children code switch 1 Fill in semantic or syntactic gap 2 Pragmatic use 3 Social norms of community Does Learning a Second Language Interfere With Language Learning Interference vs Code Switching conflict between 2 languages and disrupt overall language development o The opposite is true o Positive Effects enhanced awareness of language gives kids greater flexibility in using language giving kids better understanding of cultural diversity Code Switching vs Style Shifting code switching is between languages and style shifting is the way your speaking formal vs casual Phonological Awareness What is phonological awareness Awareness of the phonological segments of speech the segments of speech that are more or less represented by the alphabet The child s understanding of the ways in which language can be broken into smaller units Awareness of sounds understanding that the word bat has 3 sounds o Hearing and manipulating phonemes Terminology Phoneme smallest unit of sound each has distinctive features Phonemic Phonological awareness o Phonemic aspect of phonological awareness but refers to specific area of sounds o Phonological awareness of sensitivity of the phonological structure of a language Bigger umbrella Phonics instructional practice that shows how written letters are related to speech sounds graphemes vs phonemes Lectures 22 23 November 17th and 19th Before a Child Can Read He She must Be aware of print and how a book is read Know the names and letter of the alphabet alphabetic principle Be aware of speech sounds in words Studies have shown that phonemic awareness is the single best predictor of a child s ability to learn to read easily Development of Phonological Skills Ages 3 4 o Understanding sentences are made up of words o Reciting rhymes o Rhyming by patters word families o Alliteration awareness some words begin with same sound o Recognize signs McDonalds Target books by their covers o Know that print is what we read Ages 5 6 o o o o o o Counting syllables Counting phonemes Matching initial consonants Blending 2 3 phonemes Identifying rhymes Dividing onset rimes Onset initial sound Rime rest of word o Track the print when reading with fingers or eyes o Can read their names and classmates o Recognize all upper and lower case letters Ages 7 8 o Blending 3 phonemes o Segmenting 3 4 phonemes o Deleting phonemes o Manipulating phonemes o Spelling phonetically o Segmenting words that contain clusters Rhyme and Alliteration Rhyme understanding that words have the same middle and ending sounds Alliteration understanding words that share the same beginning onset are alliterative How do we break a word into parts 1 Syllables 2 Phonemes 3 Onset rime Phonological Awareness and Reading The ability to attend to the sounds of spoken language is the best predictor for reading success in grades first through third Core deficit in children with reading disabilities is that they have difficulty analyzing sounds in spoken language Children need to be able to attend to the sounds to help them map them into graphemes Once they can associate sounds with letters they can begin to decode words Phonological Awareness and Spelling Children learn to spell buy identifying the sounds that they hear in words Children need to understand letter sound association to spell words Children need to identify and write letters Phonological knowledge helps children use invented spelling Spelling Development The Structure of the English Language Very important to understand the origin of the English languages so we can assess intervene and communicate clearly about our language Our English language has Anglo Saxon Latin and Greek influences English is considered to have a complex orthography system English contains approximately 40 phonemes o 25 consonants o 15 vowels The goal for teachers is to teach the regularities of English orthography and common letter sound patterns Terminology Orthography conventional spelling system of a language methodology of writing in a language Grapheme the letters that correspond to the phonemes Consonant blends clusters two or 3 adjacent consonant sounds in a syllable o Ex spoon sp is the blend Consonant digraphs two consonant letters adjacent in a syllable but only one speech sound o Ex th Patterns in the English Language Syllable patterns Each syllable

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