UA BSC 109 - Cancers and Genetics (4 pages)

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Cancers and Genetics

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Cancers and Genetics


discusses different types of cancers, symptoms, and genetics terms

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Alabama
Bsc 109 - Intro Biology Non Maj II
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BSC 109 1st Edition Lecture 26 Outline of Last Lecture I Cancer an introduction II Tumors can be benign or cancerous III Cancerous cells lose control over their functions and structures IV How cancer develops V Mutant forms of proto oncogenes tumor suppressor genes and mutator genes contribute to cancer VI A variety of factors can lead to cancer VII The immune system plays an important role in cancer prevention VIII Advances in diagnosis enable early detection IX Cancer treatments X Observe skin lesions for Outline of Current Lecture IX Cancer treatments continued X Common cancers Chapter 19 Genetics and Inheritance I II III IV V Introductory genetics terminology Your genotype is the genetic basis of your phenotype Mendel established the basic principles of genetics Dominant alleles are expressed over recessive alleles Two trait crosses independent assortment of genes for different traits Current Lecture XI XII Cancer treatments continued A Magnetism B Photodynamic therapy C Immunotherapy D Starving cancers E Molecular treatments Common cancers A Lung cancer 1 Smoking is a leading risk factor 2 Most common type of cancer 3 Early symptoms are nonspecific These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute 4 Treated with surgery often combined with radiation and chemotherapy B Colon and rectal cancers 1 Blood in stool rectal bleeding 2 Screening tests can detect cancer early a Detection of blood in stool specimens b Colonoscopy examining interior of colon with flexible fiber optic scope c Treated with polyp removal tumor removal C Breast cancer 1 Early tetection is crucial for survival a Mammogram low dose X ray used for early detection b Detection of a lump on breast exam 2 Risk factors a Genetics b Age c Early onset of menstruation late menopause d Obesity after menopause e Oral contraceptives f Hormone replacement after menopause D Prostate cancer 1 Most common after age 50 2 Symptoms a Urination difficulties b Blood in urine c Pain in pelvic area 3 Diagnosis a Digital rectal exam b Blood test for prostate specific antigen c Biopsy 4 Treated with surgery radiation therapy hormones E Leukemia 1 Cancer of immature white blood cells in the bone marrow 2 Risk factors down syndrome exposure to ionizing radiation benzene infection with HTLV 1 virus 3 Nonspecific symptoms 4 Diagnosed after blood tests and bone marrow biopsies 5 Treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus bone marrow transplant F Lymphoma symptoms are enlarged lymph nodes intermittent fever itching weight loss night sweats G Urinary bladder cancer 1 Blood in the urine H I 2 Risk factors smoking urban living exposure to arsenic in water supply occupational exposure to leather dye rubber Skin cancer 1 Basal cell carcinoma a Involves basal cells I base layer of epithelium b Rarely metastasizes but should be removed 2 Squamous cell carcinoma a Involves epithelial cells b May metastasize slowly 3 Melanoma a Deadliest but least common of skin cancers b Cancer of the melanocytes c Metastasizes quickly 4 Early signs of skin cancer a Asymmetry two halves of the affected area don t match b Border border is irregular in shape c Color varies or is black d Diameter greater than 6 mm e Evolution change in size shape color or elevation new symptoms such as bleeding itching or crusting Uterine cervical cancers 1 Uterine cancer risk factors early onset of menstruation late onset of menopause not having children estrogen use after menopause 2 Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus infection Chapter 19 Genetics and Inheritance VI VII Introductory genetics terminology A Genes DNA sequences that contain instructions for building proteins B Genetics study of genes and their transmission from one generation to the next C Genome sum total of all of an organism s DNA D Chromosomes structures within the nucleus composed of DNA and protein E Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 1 22 pairs of autosomes 2 1 pair of sex chromosomes determine gender 3 1 of each pair of autosomes and 1 sex chromosome is inherited from each parent Your genotype is the genetic basis of your phenotype A Homologous chromosomes 1 One member of each pair is inherited from each parent 2 Look alike size shape banding pattern 3 Not identical may have different alleles of particular genes B Alleles alternative forms of a gene alleles arise from mutation VIII IX X C Homozygous two identical alleles at a particular locus D Heterozygous two different alleles at a particular locus E Genotype an individual s complete set of alleles F Phenotype observable physical and functional traits Mendel established the basic principles of genetics A Punnett square analysis predicts patterns of inheritance B Law of segregation gametes carry only one allele of each gene C Law of independent assortment 1 Genes for different traits are separated from each other independently during meiosis applies in most cases Dominant alleles are expressed over recessive alleles A Dominant allele 1 Masks or suppresses the expression of its complementary allele 2 Always expressed even if heterozygous B Recessive allele 1 Will not be expressed if paired with a dominant allele heterozygous 2 Will only be expressed if individual is homozygous for the recessive allele Two trait crosses independent assortment of genes for different traits A Law of independent assortment B The alleles of different genes are distributed to gametes independently during meiosis C This law applies only if the two genes in question are on different chromosomes

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