ISU BSC 160 - Final Exam Study Guide (42 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide
Illinois State University
Bsc 160 - Microbiology and Society
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BSC 160 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 36 Exam 1 Lecture 1 6 Key Characteristics of Microbes 1 Microbes play defense Protects from pathogens 2 Boosting immune system Microbes challenge immune system to protect against autoimmune disease 3 Protect from auto immune disease 4 Keep us Slim Microbes set metabolic rate 5 Detoxify Fight Stress Microbes can use toxic compounds to detox area More stress less diverse microbe population Makes us respond to stress differently 6 Keeps babies healthy Vaginally delivered babies are healthier because they receive mom s microbiome bacterial inoculation Chapter 1 History Relevance of Microbiology Have the ability to synthetically change microbes to different species Micro organisms can exist as a single cell Types fungi algae protozoa bacteria viruses Nucleic acid genome can replicate themselves Microbiology Having tools to grow identify classify observe learn Mostly by looking at pathogens People are dying in other countries because of poor nutrition unsanitary water and conditions 9 of Africans have HIV increasing Emergent disease changing antibiotic resistance HIV Lecture 2 Parasitic relationship 1 benefits 1 gets hurt Commensalism 1 benefits 1 has no impact Cows gut microbes Cow eats grass bacteria has enzymes to break down cellulose to sugar helps digest Mutualism Both benefit Biotechnology Molecular Biology Study of infectious disease Robert Koch Father of medical microbio Anthrax 4 Postulates Show specific microbes are for specific diseases 1 2 3 4 Microbe is only in diseased animals Isolate microbe from diseased animal grown in other culture Inject into healthy mouse Disease reproduces Isolate microbe again show be same as microbe in 2 Limtations 1 Some microbes can t be isolated 2 Can t be tested on humans Louis Pasteur Proved spontaneous contamination is incorrect Found wine sours because of bacteria contamination Lactic acid Boiling can destroy microbes Germ theory of disease Microbes disease Fermentation metabolism following glycosis Yeast converts sugar ethanol Pasteurize Heat until bacteria is destroyed History Vaccines antimicrobial compounds Small pox highly contagious Eradicated 1977 Mortality rate 25 adults 40 children Variolation Inoculate immune system Give mild small pox recover immune Edward Jenner Found people that work with cows that get cowpox are immune to small pox Tested on a child Ehrlich Searched for Syphilis cure Found Salvarsan Fleming Discovered Penicillin Walter Wife Used Jelly Developed use of agar in cultural media Attenuation Taking pathogen weakening by chemical heat treatment or pass through susceptible host repeatedly Lecture 3 Antimicrobial compounds Any compound that can destroy inhibit growth of microbes pathogenic microbes Ex Syphilis Autotroph Creates own food CO2 Food Chemlifotroph Creates food from chemicals Plasmids Extra genomic bacteria uses to confer properties Piece of DNA replicates itself in cytoplasm Circular DNA outside genome Restriction enzyme Cut DNA specific sequences Want these for mutations replications cut up viruses bacterial defense Chapter 22 Evolution Implications for Microbio Prokaryotes appeared alone but diverse Evolution by natural selection Eukaryotes Prokaryotes ate each other let them live there Reptiles Cockroaches Mammals Humans Prokaryote Do not have nucleus Simple organization metabolically complex No membrane bound organelles Have ribosomes to synthesize proteins Have plasma membranes Eukaryote Have nucleus complex structure metabolically simple Membrane bound organelles Allows to control DNA Hemoglobin Lecture 4 Phylogeny Natural relatedness between groups of organisms o All new species originate from preexisting species o Closely related organisms have similar features from ancestors Evolution usually progresses toward greater complexity Ancestor primitive complex Closer the common ancestor more similar qualities Taxonomy Organizing classifying naming living things o Formal system by Carl VonLinne o Concerned w Classification Orderly arrangement of organisms into groups Nomenclature Assigning names Identification Determining Classify Prokaryotes 1 Gram stain property cell wall structure 2 Mole G C in genome Quanines cytosines 3 Growth temperature 4 Ability to form heat stable spores 5 Electron acceptors for respiration if any 6 Photosynthetic ability 7 Motility 8 Cell shape 9 Ability to use various carbon nitrogen sources 10 Special nutritional requirements Lecture 5 Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea Archaea more closely related to Eucarya Endosymbiosis Assigning specific names Binomial scientific nomenclature Gives each microbe 2 names Genus Capitalized species lowercase Both italicized or underlined Inspiration for names is extremely varied often imaginative Fundamental Concepts Matter Molecules Matter anything with mass takes up space Atom makes up all matter Non modified atoms are electrically neutral Atomic of protons Protons define elements Ion charged element Cation positively charged ion Anion negatively charged ion Isotopes changing neutrons Many are unstable Electron arrangement Key to chemical behavior of atom lies number arrangement of electrons in their orbitals Shape is everthing Octet rule Outermost shell with electrons has to be full have 8 to be stable Except Hydrogen which has 2 Molecules Group of atoms held by stable association chemical bonds Types of Bonds Covalent bonds Strongest When electrons are shared Nonpolar equal sharing of electrons Polar unequal sharing of electrons H2O Redox Ionic bonds When electrons are gained or lost Lecture 6 Water is a universal solvent Solution Solvent solute Hydrogen bonds are weak but in numbers are very strong Because of Hydrogen bonds Cohesion Stickers together water Hydrogen bonds makes water have a high specific heat High heat of vaporization bc it takes so much energy to heat steam cools down water Chemical reactions Occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms ions or molecules Reactants Products When enzymes are involved CO2 H2O enzyme H2CO3 Substrate Product Oxidation Reduction reactions LEO GER Losing elections oxidation Gaining electons redox PH Higher than 7 basic less protons Lower than 7 acidic more protons Organic chemicals Compound containing Hydrogen Carbon handed together Ex CO2 C6H12O6 Having C H O N P S defines that it is organic Tetravalent Carbon can share 4 electrons Functional Groups of organic compounds Accessory molecules that bind to organic compounds Confer unique

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