ISU SOA 223 - Final Exam Study Guide (34 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Exams 1-4

Study Guide
Illinois State University
Soa 223 - Social Psychology
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SOA 223 1nd Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 24 Exam 1 Lecture 1 08 18 2014 Social psychology Attempts to understand explain how thoughts feelings behaviors of individuals are influence by actual imagined or implied presences of others Allport Scientific method includes systematic observation description measurement Hallmark of social psychology is the experimental study Social context Central phenomenon of social psychology Social psychologists study how people are influenced by situations how they influence each other Lab Studies To illustrate social context Walton Cohen Students told it s typical to have social stress during freshman year Control group of white students not told Black students had significant effect on GPA in later years but not white kids To illustrate power of social situation RA s Stanford chose group of students that are cooperative and group of competitive Game names Wall Street game Community Game More went for Wall Street game To illustrate social situation influence good Samaritan study Darley Batson Social Psychology differs from common sense absence makes the heart grow fonder vs out of sight out of mind Unlike common sense social psychology uses scientific method Social psychology reveals answers that depend on different factors in research Social psychology is related but different from personality psychology cognitive psychology clinical psychology sociology Lecture 2 08 20 2014 Birth Infancy of Soc Psy 1880 s 1920 s 1 2 1st social psychology experiment 1st textbooks Triplett 1887 Social facilitation Men bike faster when in competition Ringelmann 1880s Published 1913 Social loafing People perform worse on simple tasks with others than when alone Textbooks 1 Social Psychology William McDougall 1908 2 Edward Ross 1908 3 Floyd Allport 1924 1930 s 1950 s Adolf Hitler Greatest influence on social psychology Social psychologists fled from Europe to US Society for psychological study of social issues in 1936 Gordon Allport Kurt Lewin Founder of modern social psychology Came from Germany Research theoretical contributions 1 Field theory B f P E Behavior is a function of person environment Interaction 1st perspective 2 Applications of soc psy no research w o action no action w o research 3 Leadership group studies 4 Produced many productive students Festinger Kelley Schachter Thibaut Muzafer Sherif Examined influences of groups on members Demonstrated it s possible to study complex social processes conformity in scientific way 1950 s Theory Development War related research generated applied research College growth provided jobs for research Gov t businesses needed social psychologists input advertising Contributions G Adorno authoritarian personality Allport Nature of prejudice S Asch Studied conformity F Heider Introduced attribution theory Lecture 3 08 25 2014 Confidence 1960 s 1970 s Time of expansion productivity enthusiasm New topics self perceptions helping behavior aggression attraction Time of crisis debate Lab experiments questioned Golden Fleece Award Given to soc psy research on heart Studies questioned by ethics Miligram study Shocks Zimbardo s prison study Stanford prisoners guards Time of Pluralism 1970 s 1990 s Methods Hot cold perspectives Hot emotion motivation Cold cognition International cultural perspectives Social cognition New Trendy Integration of hot cold perspectives Growing interest in distinguishing between automatic vs controllable processes Biological evolutionary perspectives Cultural perspectives multicultural research Interdisciplinary approaches behavioral economics embodied cognition Behavioral Economics Loss aversion tendency for loss given magnitude to have more psychological impact than equivalent gain Sunk cost fallacy reluctance to waste leads people to continue w endeavor whether it benefits or not Mental accounting tendency to treat differently depending on how it s acquired what mental category Decision paralysis too many options can lead to decision paralysis unable to decide what option to buy Embodied cognition interdisciplinary field that examines close links between mind and positioning actions of our bodies People that wash hands w soap feel less guilty People like strangers more when they see picture when holding arms toward them New methods Brain imaging technology Use of internet Virtual reality technology Lecture 4 08 27 2014 Research Methods in Soc Psy All research begins w a question Sources Experiences observations of life reading about research already done theory Research questions shaped to hypothesis Hypothesis Testable proposition describing relationship that may exist between events variables 2 Types of research 1 Basic research test theories understand human behavior 2 Applied research Goal Find solutions for practical problems Defining Measuring Variables Conceptual variables Variables in abstract general form Operational definition specific way a variable is measured manipulated Validity reliability are important Stages of Research Process Generating research question hypothesis Finding relevant past research theory Selecting research method Collecting data Analyzing data Reporting results Research Designs Self reports Observations Experiments Archival research Goals can be description correlational or causation Self Reports Interviews qualitative quantitative Self report questionnaire paper on line Telephone interviews 2 General types of samples Convenient Representative random Advantages Easy to do gives access to people s beliefs feelings past Disadvantages People may not tell the truth responses may be affected by format wording memory is prone to error correlations do not tell us about causation Lecture 5 09 03 2014 Memory Issues Solution Reduce time that elapses between experience reporting of it Interval contingent self reports Called every night Signal contingent self reports Random calls Event contingent self reports Every time event happens Observational Studies Direct Involves systematic observations about behavior conducted in lab or natural setting Participant Researcher makes systematic observations of behaviors plays active role in interactions Tearoom Trade men engage in bathroom sex in parks Found that men that have engage lead traditionally conservative lives Observation Study advantages Avoid faulty recollections self report biases Observation Study disadvantages Reactance effect Person knows you re watching may affect behavior And if study is done in public

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