IUB BIOL-L 211 - Exam 4 Study Guide (11 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide



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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Lectures 29-35


Pages:
11
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Biol-L 211 - Molecular Biology
Edition:
1
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BIOL L211 Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 29 35 Lecture 29 November 12 Introduction to Genetic Code How many bases are in a codon and what does it code for 3 A codon codes for one specific amino acid What is the three base pair code for a start codon and for which amino acid does it code AUG it codes for methionine How many naturally occurring amino acids are there and what are their defining characteristics 20 each amino acid has an amino group hence amino a carboxylic acid group hence acid a hydrogen atom and a side chain R group carbon containing chain which may or may not contain heteroatoms How are codons arranged in an open reading frame and what does an open reading frame code for Codons are arranged side by side but not overlapping in an open reading frame which codes for one specific protein How were the original experiments to decipher genetic code performed Transcripts were made with exclusively U s A s and C s All U s produced Phenylalanine Then transcripts were made with alternating nucleotides CAC produced Histidine ACA produced Threonine What is transfer RNA tRNA and what does it code for Transfer RNA does not code for anything Instead it recognizes codons by base pairing with them at its anti codon in order to ensure the addition of the proper amino acid in response to the codon What is the purpose of Pol III Pol III synthesizes tRNA Describe the structure of tRNA and define the main components tRNA has a cloverleaf structure with an anticodon segment which binds a specific codon an acceptor arm In what direction is a codon read The codon is read 5 to 3 Why is the genetic code degenerate The genetic code is degenerate because there are only 20 amino acids but there are 64 possible codon arrangements meaning that some amino acids can be coded by multiple codons What is the Wobble Effect The phenomenon by which one codon can bind with more than one anticodon in certain situations Which nucleotide on the anticodon is capable of base pairing with more than



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