GSU ASTR 1010 - Final Exam Study Guide (11 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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ASTR 1010 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 18 23 Lecture 18 November 4 The Moon Mercury Venus Know the similarities and differences between the moon and Mercury A Similarities Small Masses Moon 0 012 Mass of Earth Mercury 0 055 Mass of Earth Small Sizes Moon 0 27 Radius of Earth Mercury 36 R Earth Low Escape Speeds Moon 2 4 km s Mercury 4 2 km s Highly cratered surfaces No atmosphere other than temporarily attracted solar winds Large Temperature Swings Moon 100 400K Mercury 100 700K Largest variation of all Rotation and revolution locked in resonances spin orbit resonance Moon 1 1 Mercury 3 2 Either no magnetic field Moon Or an extremely weak one Mercury B Differences Density Moon 3 3 g cm 3 Mercury Venus 5 4 g cm 3 Similar to Earth Formation Moon was probably formed by a collision of a large planet Maybe Mars size Mercury s formation was probably similar to Earth s Venus and Mars formation Know the properties of Venus A Properties Mass is 0 106 Earth s Mass via Phobos and Deimos Radius is 0 53 of Earth Density is Mercury Atmosphere Temperature 200 300K Pressure 0 01 Atms Magnetic field 1 800 Earth Orbital Period 686 9 days Rotational Period 24h 37min Tilt of Axis 24 degrees Equatorial Tilt 24 0 degrees similar to Earth Mars has seasons also Clouds 3 93 g cm 3 It has a different interior than Earth Venus or CO2 rich H2O CO2 White Yellow Dust Dust Storms Blue Haze Lecture 19 November 6 Mars List the properties of Mars Radius is 0 53 of Earth Density is Mercury Atmosphere Temperature 200 300K Pressure 0 01 Atms Magnetic field 1 800 Earth Orbital Period 686 9 days Rotational Period 24h 37min Tilt of Axis 24 degrees Equatorial Tilt 24 0 degrees similar to Earth Mars has seasons also Clouds 3 93 g cm 3 It has a different interior than Earth Venus or CO2 rich H2O CO2 White Yellow Dust Dust Storms Blue Haze Interior Crust 100km thick Mantle 2050km thick not plastic now Core 1250 km thick in radius made of FeS 1 NO bulk magnetic field no liquid and or no pure Fe Ni 2 Less metals than other terrestrial planets percentage wise 3 Mars is small and cooled off too fast to establish plate tectonics Lecture 20 November 13 The Moon s Phases Describe each term or phrase I Jupiter B Atmosphere H He Methane and Ammonia Horizontal bands in the atmosphere alternating reddish light colored bands reddish color due to Ammonia Great red spot large high pressure storm 16 000 x 36 000 miles permanent feature Rotational period Differential Rotation a 9 hrs 50 min b 9 hrs 56 min Radiates more energy than it receives from the sun due to slow contraction of planet C Properties Orbital Period 11 86 years Rotational Period 9 hrs 56min Tilt of Axis of Rotation 3 degrees Mass 318 M Earth Radius 11 2 R Earth Ring system detected by Voyager D Magnetic Properties Mag Field 100 x Mag field of Earth Tilt of Mag Axis 9 6 degrees Strongest planetary magnetic field in Solar System Most extensive radiation belts Radio emissions from Radial belts modulated by Jovian longitude and the position of Io E Internal Structure Core tiny amount of real metals Not enough to generate string mag field Metallic Hydrogen Molecular Hydrogen Mush thick soupy Hydrogen Helium atmosphere F Galilean Satellites Io innermost 1 5 x the size of Earth s moon a Surface covered with active volcanoes the largest is Prometheus Sulfur lies in Io s orbit b Geological activity produced by the tidal forces of Jupiter causes active volcanoes flexing of crust generates thermal energy c Provides controlling influence on the radio emissions from Jupiter s radiation belts Europa Surface covered with network of lines and cracks and clear fields of ice Probably the result of icy volcanism May contain water beneath the surface Possibility of life Ganymede Largest moon in the solar system many impact craters and a weak magnetosphere Tenuous but permanent atmosphere Calisto Highly cratered surface largest crater is Valhalla is surrounded by concentric shock rings Lecture 21 November 18 Saturn Uranus Neptune and Pluto Describe each of the four planets I Saturn A Atmosphere B Properties C Magnetic Properties D Internal Structure E Satellites II Uranus III Neptune IV Pluto Current Lecture II Jupiter G Atmosphere H He and Methane Ammonia not detected Horizontal bands in the atmosphere low contrast due to absence of Ammonia Rotational period Differential Rotation fluid planet c 10 hrs 16 min d 10 hrs 40 min Radiates more energy than it receives from the sun due to slow contraction of planet Would float in water Density 75 D Earth H Properties Orbital Period 29 4 years Tilt of Axis of Rotation 26 7 degrees Mass 95 M Earth Radius 9 45 R Earth Extensive Ring System a Cassini Division b Braided Ring Magnetic Influence c Shepard Satellites I Magnetic Properties Mag Field Saturn 0 67 x Mag field of Earth Tilt of Mag Axis 9 6 degrees Radiation belts are depleted due to rings J Internal Structure Core Metallic Hydrogen Molecular Hydrogen Mush Hydrogen Helium atmosphere K Galilean Satellites Titan d Largest moon of Saturn e Nitrogen rich atmosphere f Ionosphere Mimas Has large crater on surface near the size necessary to disrupt this moon Iapetus Two hemisphere have extremely different albedos one is highly reflective the other is covered with soot like material Tethys and Dione Cratered cracked surface with evidence of some Maria icy flooding activity Enceladus Bright shiny surface likely has water ice volcanoes on its surface III Uranus Mass 14 5 M Earth Rotational Period 0 72 days Axial tilt 98 degrees Magnetic field 74 M Earth Tilt of Mag Axis 58 6 degrees Perhaps reversing Atmosphere H He Methane a No internal heat source b High velocity 200 500Km hr Rings Nine thin rings Shepard moons all in Equatorial plane Satellites 17 a Oberon Titania Heavily cratered dirty icy surface b Umbriel Darkest one bright spot unexplained c Ariel Resurfacing Cracks due to cratering d Miranda Ridges valleys faults torturous geological features disrupted due to internal external effects IV Neptune Mass 17 M Earth Rotational Period 0 67 days Axial tilt 29 6 degrees Magnetic field 43 M Earth Tilt of Mag Axis 46 degrees Perhaps reversing Atmosphere H He Methane a Slightly warmer than Uranus internal heat source b Several large storms Great dark spot High velocity 200 500Km hr Rings five thin rings predict the existence of Shepard moons Satellites 8 No moons in roughly circular prograde orbits unlike any other planet a Triton Retrograde orbit 20 degrees tenuous Nitrogen atmosphere ice


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