UT Knoxville ANTH 110 - Final Exam Study Guide (5 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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An overview of topics discussed during lectures 18 - 25


Pages:
5
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Anth 110 - Human Origins
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

ANTH 110 1nd Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 18 25 Lecture 18 Which Era are we currently in It can be divided into what two Periods From there what Epochs are the two Periods made up of The Cenozoic Era is the current Era It consists of the Tertiary 65 m y a and Quaternary 1 8 m y a Periods The Tertiary Period began with the Paleocene Epoch followed by the Eocene Oligocene Miocene and Pliocene in that order The Quaternary Period began with the Pleistocene Epoch followed by the Holocene Epoch in which we currently live What was Pangea Laurasia Gonovia More than 200 million years ago earth was one giant continent Pangea Pangea then split into Laurasia and Gonovia 180 million years ago As the continents continued to drift mammals began to diversify and spread out Anthropologists mark the beginning of this to be 65 million years ago Lecture 19 What are some defining characteristics of each of the 7 Epochs of the Cenozoic Era Primate like mammals photo primates appeared during the Paleocene The first true primates Prosimians and old way of classifying lemurs lorises and tarsiers existed during the Eocene Epoch Adapids and Omomyids were the two groups of primates in the Eocene The Oligocene consisted of early Catarrhines as well as precursors to monkeys and apes Apidium looked like a fat squirrel Aegyptopithecus looked like a fat cat and Platyrrhines were some of our ancestors that existed during this Epoch Monkeys and apes emerge first humanlike creatures appear during the Miocene Epoch Early humans diversify during the Pliocene early Homo develops during the Pleistocene and the Holocene is the present Epoch Lecture 20 What are some important things to remember about the Early Middle and Late Miocene Apes traveled amongst Africa Europe and Asia During the early Miocene Primates were found mostly in Africa However during the middle to late portions of the Epoch primates could be found in Asia Africa and Europe The entire Epoch was considered a boom for apes The Procunsal genus and Victoriapithecus existed during Early Miocene The Procunsal was an ape from Africa that was quadrapedal and had no tail The Vicotriapithecus genus was an Old World Monkey from Africa that can be easily defined as an OWM due to its parallel tooth pattern Dryopithecus and Ouranopithecus existed during the Middle Miocene Dryopithecus was from Europe and was best known for a diet of relatively tough foods having no sagittal crest being arboreal having brachiates long arms long hands and long fingers Sivapithecus Gigantopithecus and Sahlenthropus tchadensis existed during the Late Miocene Sivapithecus was from Asia He was an arboreal quadraped that had broad zygomatics wide cheeks projecting maxilla protruding mid face and incisors Gigantopithecus was also from Asia Asia He went extinct because it was a bamboo eater and bamboo disappeared for a long period of time There is much speculation surrounding the Sahlenthropus tchadensis We do not have enough evidence to determine whether or not it was an ape or hominin Why did Hominins become bipedal It was an evolution of needs They adapted so that they could carry items hunt collect nuts and seeds reach higher up regulate heat have visual surveillance walk long distances and have male provisioning Lecture 21 What are some key characteristics of Pre Australopiths What do we know about Ardi Pre Australopiths existed between 6 and 4 4 m y a the tail end of the Miocene Epoch They were from Africa and consisted of 3 genera The earliest Sahelanthropus came from West Central Africa The second Orrorin came from East Africa and the latest Ardipithecus originated in South Africa What we know about Ardi opposable toe bipedal pelvis arboreal biped thin enamel on molars no large canines overall size consistent with Australopiths less than 4 feet tall for an average adult fruit eater What are some key characteristics of Australopiths The Australopiths consisted of Australopithecus and Paranthropus They were bipedal had relatively small brains and had large teeth with thick enamel Australopithecus Anamensis was first discovered in 1965 Lucy perhaps the most popular specimen of A anamensis was discovered in Ethipoia in 1974 She had large canines and parallel teeth Paranthropus had large teeth related to powerful chewing broad cheekbones a flatter face a sagittal crest and a diet emphasizing rough vegetables possibly some meat Lecture 22 Was it Paranthropus or Australopithecus that was an evolutionary dead end Scientists concluded that Paranthropus was an evolutionary dead end This genus did not give rise to any later specimen due to their very distinct niche What Australopithecus specimen have we found In South Africa in 1924 a skull was found in a quarry now known as The Taung Child It was determined to be an A africanus It had a larger brain smaller brows and smaller canines Mrs Ples is another specimen as well as A Sediba a transitional Australopith Lecture 23 Describe the first ever tools discovered by Louis Leakey The first ever tools are referred to as Oldowan technology These tools are made with water worn volcanic rock There are two main categories cobbles that can be worked into a chopper and flakes By hitting a cobble with another rock it knocks off flakes which are very sharp and used to remove meat Cobbles and choppers we used to get marrow What are some key characteristics of Early Homo Early Homo sapiens lived between 2 5 and 1 4 m y a They were cotemporaneous with Australopiths They had a larger cranial capacity than Apiths and their teeth were more modern as well Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis were the two Early Homo genii that lived during the time Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis were derived from the Austrolopiths It has not been determined whether Homo rudolfensis or Homo habilis was our ancestor One was a dead end we believe What changes occurred during the Pliocene and Pleistocene Epochs There was a major adaptive shift in Hominins There were perhaps environmental or climatic shifts too Body size and brain size continued to increase Homo erectus and Homo ergaster emerged outside Africa Earliest African emigrants were descendents of east African erectus They moved to follow food and resources as we all do They arrived in Indonesia in less than 200 000 years Classic Homo erectus traits taller face a little progmathic teeth pattern much more like ourselves than Austropiths The first discovery of homo erectus was in 1890 s in Indonesia by Dubois In the 1950


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