UT Knoxville ANTH 110 - Neanderthals (3 pages)

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A look at Neanderthal culture and the possibility of interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Tennessee
Anth 110 - Human Origins
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ANTH 110 1nd Edition Lecture 25 Outline of Last Lecture I Homo Erectus II Middle Pleistocene A Homo heidelbergensis B Neanderthals Outline of Current Lecture I Neanderthal Culture II Results of Recent Evidence III Humans A Europe Cro Magnon B Upper Paleolithic Culture Current Lecture I Neanderthal culture Mousterian stone tool culture Thrived in glacial areas bitter cold Lived in cave residences Evidence of intentional burial grave goods symbolic behavior nonhuman bones flint tools pollen Cared for the injured Hyoid bone a bone near or around the Adam s apple Homo sapiens have one that looks exactly like a Neanderthal s We found a specimen of this in Kebara cave This has generated a discussion about their vocalization The bone that s associated with the larynx and our ability to speak is the exact same as theirs so did they have vocal communication These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Another point of discussion Did Homo sapiens s arrival have anything to do with Neanderthal s extinction They occurred one after the other II Results of Recent Evidence It has been discovered that Neanderthals and modern Homo sapiens share DNA This means that it is possible that Neanderthals and Homo sapiens interbred How modern humans differ from Neanderthals in terms of specific genes is becoming known Abrigo do Lagar Velho a discovery made in Portugal is evidence of interbreeding It was dated 24 500 years ago The teeth and lower jaw represent modern human anatomy while the lack of chin limb proportions and muscle insertions are similar to Neanderthals There is evidence that at least some Neanderthals were redheaded and also were likely light skinned III Humans Humans first appeared in East Africa 200 000 years ago A Europe Cro Magnon 30 k y a high forehead bulging parietals prominent chin B Upper Paleolithic Culture Europe 40 k y a Stone tool technologies atlatl spear thrower burin solutrean blade They are much more advanced than before and facilitate much more advanced activities There is tremendous growth in brain capacity of Homo sapiens over time As the brain grows the shape of the face changes as well This is apparent A big brain is not an obvious evolutionary advantage at least not immediately This is because you need a lot more caloric intake in order to support a larger brain size so there is a slow selective process 25 of our metabolism is devoted to brain function which is a huge investment of energy and a huge risk in terms of overall chance for survival of a species

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