VCU RELS 108 - Final Exam Study Guide (7 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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An overview of the material presented in lecture in preparation for the final exam.


Pages:
7
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Course:
Rels 108 - Human Spirituality
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

RELS 108 1nd Edition Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 11 18 Lecture 11 October 7 Problem of Evil Continued 4 Classic Approaches Karma Consolation of Promise Appeal to Sovereignty o There is no solution to the problem of evil We don t know why these things happen o Ex The story of Job Dualism Good and Evil are completely set apart o Ex Zoroastrianism Gnosticism Gnosticism Creator God Demiurge Evil Purpose of life is uncovering Gnosis Divine Knowledge Lecture 12 October 14 Spirituality Morality Ethics What is morality o From Latin word Moralis Goodness Morality sacred quest ways of thinking feeling acting that address considerations of human welfare Practical justification reasons we give for certain actions Philosophy 3 Branches 1 Metaphysics aka ontology study of being what it means to be or not to be 2 Epistemology what does it mean to know something 3 Ethics Morality the shouldness oughtness of things how things should be What does it mean to live a good life o This question makes up value theory What do people really want Ataraxia or inner peace Value Theory 1st branch of ethics is value theory What does it mean to live well 2nd branch of ethics is normative ethics What should one do to live well 3rd branch of ethics is meta ethics What is goodness and how can we tell what is good and what is bad 2 Ethical Positions De Ontological o Judges the morality of actions based on a duty or appeal The actions are adherences to a rule law duty etc Teleological o Rooted in the principle of utility which states that actions behaviors are right in so far as they promote happiness pleasure they are wrong if they tend to produce unhappiness or pain Practical Justification 3 Cases 1 Hinduism Caste System shift in thought from Vedas to Upanishads 4 stages of life in Hinduism De Ontological 1 Student 2 Householder 3 Hermit Forest Dweller 4 Wandering Sannyasin pursuit of spiritual liberation 2 Islam The justification and limitation of war war is not something to be taken lightly requires reason justification Reason for engaging in warfare defense of the faith in the face of persecution o Sunni expansion o Shi a against expansion 3 Christianity 2 views for reason of prayer o De ontological position Ken Barth prayer is a matter of obligation o Teleological John Calvin prayer leads to a growing in faith spiritual awareness morality Lecture 13 October 21 Perspectives on Liberation Salvation in the Context of Human Spirituality Soteriology Study of salvation liberation within the field of religious studies What do humans want o Buddhism Enlightenment Nirvana that which saves us from Samsara conditioned worldly existence Nirvana is ultimate freedom liberation o Hinduism Moksha is that which saves us from Samsara Liberation comes from the identification joining of Atman Brahman o Christianity Eternal life through Christ Christ is that which saves Kenosis self emptying The emptying of one s personal will or ego o Islam That which is saves which is referred to as Ifran Ifran means knowing awareness Ifran is connected to Islamic Mysticism Salvation and Death Death as End o Modern idea that is rooted in the Doctrine of Eternal Oblivion Soul dies when body dies no re birth Doctrine of Eternal Oblivion comes from Annihilationism which is a Christian idea belief that apart from salvation in Christ the final punishment is not hell as normally conceived rather hell is total nonexistence Annihilationism apart from salvation is final non existence Ways of Conceiving Salvation Liberation 1 Individual Salvation in this World o The Search for Meaning o Desire to be Remembered o Ideal of Completion 2 Individual Salvation in Another World o Joining the Spirit World o Cosmic Cycling or Expansion Tchich Nhat Hanh about Freedom YouTube video watched in class Lecture 14 October 23 Salvation Soteriology Continued Individual salvation in another world reincarnation and expansion Plato s Republic early Plato speculations regarding the soul Immortality tied into early works of Plato Logos Divine Word Universal Reason Salvation in Plato union with the Logos Origin of Alexandria brought up the idea of reincarnation in early Christian thought 5 th Ecumenical Counsel Western Conceptions Regarding the Soul Augustine of Hippo St Augustine tackled problem of immortality of soul o Eternal soul can either live in union with God or in separation St Thomas Aquinas o Summa Theologica o The soul is actually a conscious intellect and a will Idea of Judgment Central to Abrahamic Traditions Good is rewarded evil is punished justice Group Salvation in this World Considered in 3 ways o Salvation through the people o Salvation through the tradition o Salvation In the Kingdom of God Group Salvation in Another World Kingdom of God in its transcendent aspect points to the establishment of an eternal blessed community beyond space and time This comes about at the end of history through the apocalypse in Abrahamic traditions Paths to Salvation Eastern and Western Hinduism Jnana Yoga Path of Knowledge o Karma Yoga The Path of Action Path of Action in Islam following Shari a law Path of Aesthetics Path of Submission o Arises due to the sense of absolute dependence Path of Grace o Doctrine of Election by John Calvin Human beings can do nothing to bring about salvation Only brought about by will of creator God Lecture 15 November 4 Spiritual Views on Death Thanatology study of death amongst human beings Interdisciplinary Phenomenon Anything that appears to the senses o Any observable occurrence o The way the world appears to us through the senses Noumenon A posited object or event that is known without the use of the senses o Prior to experience Classical Texts Regarding the Afterlife Tibetan Book of the Dead Bardo Thodal o Interval between death and rebirth This interval in Tibet is known as Bardo in between The text includes chapters on the signs of death rituals when death occurs etc Egyptian Book of the Dead o Ancient Egyptian funerary text o Original name of text Book of Coming Forth by Day o Consists of number of magical spells intended to assist the dead s journey through the Duat or Underworld and into afterlife Heaven and Hell by Emmanuel Swedenborg o Author claimed to have experiences outside of the body where he would project himself into spirit worlds o Says there is heaven hell and a realm of spirits o Book is detailed description on what happens after death to the physical body Based on what he said was revealed to him Lecture 16 November 18


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