UA PSIO 201 - Exam 4 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


The Nervous System

Study Guide
University of Arizona
Psio 201 - Human Anatomy and Physiology I
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PSIO 201 5th Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures Objectives November 3 2014 Lecture 1 List the divisions of the nervous system and describe how the different divisions interact with each other 2 List the four major structures of the brain 3 Describe the organization of the cerebrum in terms of gyri sulci hemispheres lobes and gray and white matter 4 Describe the organization of the cerebellum in terms of hemispheres and white and gray matter 5 List and describe the meningeal layers and spaces in order from superficial to deep Include a list of the dural folds as described in lecture 6 Describe the functions formation and flow of cerebrospinal fluid Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord sends signal to the PNS to conduct an action potential Peripheral Nervous System PSN includes nerves and glands sensory function afferent neurons integrative function interneurons and motor function efferent neurons Cerebrum hemispheric lateralization right side music face recognition visual imagery spatial ability Left language logic and reasoning Frontal Lobes emotions speech reasoning Parietal Lobes perception of touch pain pressure and temperature Temporal Lobes recognition of auditory stimuli and memory Occipital Lobe Vision Insula Autonomic information and visceral function The Grey matter unmyelinated area of the brain is on the exterior while the white matter myelinated area of the brain is interior The cerebellum has the arbor vitae with is the white matter and the grey matter is exterior to the arbor vitae called sulcus Meningies Layers duramater subdural space arachnoid mater sub arachnoid space contains arachnoid villi pia mater Duramater is superficial and fuses with Periosteum of skull inner layer folds into parts forming sinuses Major Dural Folds Falx Cerebri Falx Cerebelli and Tentorium Cerebelli Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF cushion and shock absorption chemical protection and exchanges nutrients and wastes Objectives November 5 2014 Lecture 1 Describe the location and function of the specific functional areas of the cortex as described in lecture 2 Describe the general location and function of the basal nuclei 3 Describe the location and function of the cerebral white matter 4 Describe hemispheric lateralization Primary Motor Area located in the precentral gyrus in frontal lobes innervates skeletal muscles Primary Somatic Sensory Area located in the postcentral Gyrus receives sensory receptors responding to touch temperature and proprioception Primary Visual Area located in the occipital lobes nervous signal travels along optic nerve to provide information color shape and movement of visual stimuli Primary Auditory Area receives impulses arising from vestibulochlear nerve to determine pitch rhythm sound and loudness left temporal only Assosication area determines what the sound is Wernickes Area location in temporal lobe function interprets meaning of speech Broca s Area frontal lobe on left side controls muscle action for talking Basal Nuclei grey matter help initiate and terminate movements suppress regulate and control skeletal system White matter myelinated axons bound in deep tracts communicate between cerebral areas and brain Aphasia condition common cause of stroke communication disorder impairs ability to process language but doesn t affect intelligence Brocas non fluent Objectives November 7 2014 Lecture 1 Describe the major parts of a typical nerve cell and define its major functions resting potenial action potential and synaptic transmission 2 Describe the location and function of the Diencephalon thalamus hypothalamus epithalamus Cerebellum Brain stem pons medulla and midbrain 3 Briefly describe the limbic system Nerve Cell cell body processes information dendrites collect information axon propagates information to output site synapses transmit information to other parts of nervous system Resting membrane Potential baseline of all cells strong voltage across membrane transient changes into signals Neuronal Action Potential transient change in membrane voltage along an axon Synaptic Transmission AP gets to end of axon a chemical transmitter is released causing excited post synaptic event in EPSP or ISPS in next neuron Objectives November 10 2014 Lecture 1 Draw and label an accurate representation of the gross anatomy of the spinal cord 2 Draw a cross section through the spinal cord and label the internal anatomy as discussed in class 3 Trace the path taken by sensory information entering the spinal cord and motor information exiting the spinal cord Spinal Cord Cervical C4 T1 nerves that exit here provide shoulder girdle upper limbs Lumbar T9 T12 supply pelvis and lower limbs Conus Medullaris L2 Filum Terminale is extension of pia mater that anchors spinal cord to coccyx Cauda Equina extension of nerves exiting from end of spinal cord Internal Spinal Cord GREY MATTER cental canal small opening at center of SC Posterior horns are cell bodies of somatic and visceral sensory neurons Grey Commisure connects posterior horns Anterior Horns are cell bodies of somatic motor neurons found only in thoracic lumbar and sacral regions WHITE MATTER posterior columns contain sensory tracts ascending Lateral Columns with motor and sensory tracts Anterior Columns motor tracts descending Anterior white commissure connects white matter on left and right sides Input and Output to Spinal Cord Dorsal root of spinal nerve carries afferent information dorsal root ganglion cluster of sensory cell bodies Ventral Root carries motor information from anterior spinal Nerves joining of dorsal and ventral roots 2cm long 31 pairs exit spinal cord Objectives November 12 2014 Lecture 1 Define reflex and list the five components of a reflex arc 2 Differentiate between ipsilateral and contralateral somatic and autonomic monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes 3 Diagram and describe the 4 representative reflex arcs discussed in lecture Reflex is a response from a stimuli usually for protection Contains a sensory receptor afferent neuron integrating center motor neuron effector Ipsilateral one sided contralateral switches sides somatic is skeletal muscle autonomic is cranial monosynaptic has no integrating neuron and polysynaptic has integrating neuron Stretch Reflex prevents injury from overstretching stretches with muscle spindle mono ipsi spinal somatic Tendon Reflex presents damage from too much tension muscle contraction poly ipsi spinal somatic Flexor Reflex protects from further injury flexion

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