SC CHEM 102 - Nucleic Acids (5 pages)

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Nucleic Acids



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CHEM 102 Chapter 13 Lecture 20 Outline of Last Lecture I Classify Lipids II Fatty Acid Structure III Triacylglycerols and reactions of them IV Hydrolyzable and Nonhydrolyzable Lipids V Steroids Eicosanoids and Vitamins VI Protein Functions VII Amino Acids VIII Zwitterions and Peptides IX Acid sequence and constitutional isomers X Types of proteins and their functions XI Effect of temperature on proteins XII Hydrolysis of proteins Outline of Current Lecture I Nucleotides Naming and formation II Base Pairing III DNA and RNA structures IV Information flow from DNA to RNA These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute V Replication Transcription and Translation VI Protein Synthesis Current Lecture Nucleotides Nucleotides building blocks of nucleic acids Made from phosphoric acid a pentose sugar and a heterocyclic nitrogen base The pentose sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose The base and sugar makes nucleotides different from one another https www mun ca biology scarr Deoxyribose vs Ribose gif To tell if a nucleotides has ribose or deoxyribose look at the H group on the second carbon on the pentose sugar OH means it s ribose H means it is Deoxyribose There are 2 components of nucleotides Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine in DNA and Uracil in RNA Purines Adenine and Guanine Formation of Nucleotides Dehydration reactions between a Phosphoric Acid Pentose Sugar and either a Pyrimidine or Purine http img sparknotes com figures 7 749a4182b7527e44d289a612e420f40c nucleotide gif Naming Nucleotides The first word of the name indicates the sugar and base components Replace the ending osine with the ending ine With Pyrimidines change the base to Cytidine Thymidine and Uridine When Deoxyribose is the sugar add the prefix deoxyThe second word of the name indicates the phosphate group on whichever number carbon it is on 5 monophosphate Abbreviations deoxy is a lower case d followed by the first letter of the base A C T U G and MP for 5 monophosphate EX dAMP or DeoxyAdenine 5 monophosphate Formation of Nucleic Acids Formed by the dehydration of nucleotides http nutrition jbpub com resources images images 0837 2 00 0537 gif List the different nucleotides in order from top to bottom by name they are in a 5 3 pattern meaning that the bonds are on the 5th and 3rd carbons DNA forms a double helix structure from separate DNA strands which fold around eachother in opposite directions One is in a 5 3 direction the other is in a 3 5 direction so they can bond to each other Base Pairing Base pairing occurs by strong attractive forces between a base on one DNA strand with a base on another DNA strand Adenine pairs with Thymine 2 hydrogen bonds Cytosine pairs with Guanine 3 Hydrogen bonds DNA strands are huge with molecular masses estimated at a few billion to a hundred million The genome Total DNA sequence is tightly packed and separated into the 46 chromosomes Chromosomes DNA is folded around 2 pairs each of 4 proteins called HISTONES making a nucleosome core These bunch together forming a chain of nucleosomes The nucleosomes are tightly packed together into highly supercoiled Chromatin Fibers The fibers wind themselves into Chromosomes Single strand molecules not a double helix Several types of RNA tRNA mRNA rRNA RNA uses Uracil instead of Thymine and it pairs with Adenine RNA Information Flow from DNA to RNA I II DNA hold the genetic information through a sequence of specific amino acids DNA replicates itself and makes RNA because DNA is too large to leave the nucleus so it creates RNS to leave the nucleus Replication strands of DNA unwind over a short span of 175 nucleotides forming a replication bubble replication fork Each strand acts as a template strand on which ha new strand is formed Transcription synthesis of the different RNA strands and is carried out like replication but with initiation AUG and termination UAG UAA UGA steps The RNA strand synthesized from DNA template strands has the same base sequences except the RNA uses U instead of T Translation rRNA mRNA and tRNA work together outside the nucleus at ribosomes to carry out the polypeptide synthesis The genetic message that is carried by the mRNA is the sequence of bases specifying which amino acids will be used to make the protein Each set of consecutive bases base triplet is called a CODON These condons will base pair to the three consecutive base sequence on tRNA anticondons Know how to use the Codon assignments chart on page B141 in the notes


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