TAMU ANSC 107 - Nutritional Requirements (11 pages)

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Nutritional Requirements

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Nutritional Requirements


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Ansc 107 - General Animal Science
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ANSC 107 1nd Edition Lecture 22 Outline of previous lecture I Nutrition II Water III Lipids IV VFA V Carbs VI Vitamins a A D E K B Thiamin Outline of current lecture I Nutrition and feedstuf II Nutritional requirements Current lecture 1 Thiamin a Vitamin b1 is found in whole grain and starchy roots b Coenzymes A needed in krebs cycle c Disease in ruminant 2 Minerals a Macro Minerals i Calcium ii Potassium iii Phosphorus iv Magnesium v Sodium vi Sulfur These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute vii Chorine b Micro Minerals i Iron ii Iodine iii Manganese iv Copper v Cobalt vi Zinc vii Molybdenum viii Selenium ix Chromium 3 Salt a Mature animal consume 25 50 oz a day b Provide free choice c Can provide complete mineral package or just salt d Good way to get animals medicated i Salt block e Need cause influences on water f Salt is usually fed by free choice 4 Calcium and phosphorus a Interrelated in the development of skeleton b Ca metabolic problems develop rapidly i Tetany and urinary calculi 1 Tetany is stifness ii Normal ratio of 2 1 Ca P c Forages are high in Ca low in P i Alfalfa is high in Ca ii Add dicalcium phosphate 1 1 or limestone d Grains are low in Ca and high in P i More likely to see urinary calculi ii Depends on type of grain in diet 1 Corn vs milo area where grown iii Can use dicalcium phosphate free choice in ewes to prevent problems 5 Magnesium MACRO a Skeletal maintenance and enzymes systems enzyme breaks down feed stuf i Grass tetany is most common problem 1 Lush pastures with fast growing forage SPRING 2 Low blood Mg 3 Convulsion salivation frothing at the mouth ii Mg requirements are 15 diet iii Spring grass that is low Mg and high K heavily fertilized with N causes problems 6 Potassium a Intracellular fluid osmotic pressure b Low K causes listlessness and stifness c Grazing animals rarely have problem i Unless grazing mature or droughty forages 1 Big problem in Texas d Most problem seen in feeding areas 7 Sulfur a Most needed in wool producing animals i Disulfide bridges associated with fiber growth ii Component of methionine cysteine B vitamins thiamine and biotin iii Rarely seen as most supplements contain sulfur b Too much is toxic X c Must watch N S ration problem with high urea feeds i Nitrogen d Can have toxicity problems over 4 e Dietary interaction with Mo and Cu f Sulfur firms insoluble complexes with Mo and Cu which decrease their utilization 8 Iodine MICRO a Needed for synthesis of thyroid hormones b Common sign of deficiency is goiter i Swelling under jaw ii Animals grazing Kale must have added iodine iii Using iodized salt gernerally eliminates problems iv Since we don t grow Kale here its not that big of problem 9 Copper MICO a Nervous systems pigmentation of skin i Cofactor for enzyme reaction b Sheep need 7 11 ppm c Goats need 10 25 ppm d Cu levels influenced y S and Mo levels e Diferent breeds are more or less susceptible i Copper toxicity a major problem in show lamb symptoms and treatment 1 High concentrated feed ii Hard to keep Cu low in feeds f Dog food is high in copper g Makes eyes turn orange 10 Iron a Needed for blood b Major deficiency i Heavy parasite load 1 Worm infection c Swine need the most of this 11 ZN MO CO a Minor need b Zinc reproductive performance i Not during lactating ii Timely bases iii Not during lactating c Molybdenum i Balance other minerals d Cobalt synthesis of b12 i Cobalt energy ii B12 water soluble e Trace minerals 12 Selenium a Regulated by USDA b Need for cardiac and skeletal muscle function early embryonic development and tooth development c Goes hand in hand with vitamin E d Areas of US with low selenium levels most afected e Old cotton fields where arsenic was used i Biggest problem in west f White muscle cattle and sheep tooth developments decrease development g West south where arsenic in cotton is a problems 13 Feed Additives a Prevents disease b Examples i Chlortetracycline ii Oxytetracycline iii Lasalocid iv Deconquinate v Rumensin vi Rabon c Digestibility total digestible nutrients TDN i TDN ligin and cellulose don t count since indigestive d Percent crude protein e Percent fat f Percent fiber g Calcium phosphorous 14 Lasalocid a Prevention of Coccidia i Birds and fly transmit decrease grain intake ii 20 30 g ton with provide 15 70 mg hd d iii 90 g ton better rate 1 BEST RATE b Improvement in grain c Some control of toxoplasmosis i Small ruminants cause abortion ii Cat poop 15 Decoquinate a Coccidian prevention b 13 6 g ton will provide 22 7 mg 100 lbs bw i Feed for 28 days during periods of exposure ii Wet sunny blooms change barns 16 Rabon a Fly control b Often used in horse feed 17 Calcium prevention a Ammonium chloride i 5 1 0 ton of feed ii 10 20 lbs ac ton of feed iii 60 75 best rate b Ammonium sulfate i Same levels ii Not as efficient for calculi prevention 18 Feed stuf a Roughages grass i Feed materials low in energy and containing 18 crude fiber ii Includes pasture hay straw silarge and stover iii Variable in protein content 4 22 1 Depends where comes from wheat vs grains iv Needed for bulk in ruminant rations v Higher in calcium and trace minerals than most concentrates vi Legumes are higher in B vitamin and protein than most concentrate 1 Legumes clover and alpha vii Better source of fat soluble vitamin than most concentrates viii Limited or excluded in swine rations 1 Monogastrics 2 Horses need cause specialized cecum ix More variable in nutritive content and acceptability than concentrates due to variation in stage of maturity and harvesting and storage procedures x Necessary in lactating dairy cow ration and the basis of all ruminant diets xi Produces heat in ruminant animals xii Microbial activity xiii 1st cut low quality 3 cut higher b Carbonaceous concentrates i Grain ii High in energy and low in fiber iii Low in protein in relation to oil seds and some mill seeds iv Protein quality is variable and generally low v Fair in phosphorus low in calcium vi Low in vitamin A and D high in thiamin and low in riboflavin b12 and pantothenic acid 1 Low in fat soluble thiamin B1 vii Common examples 1 Corn 2 Sorghum grains 3 Oats 4 Barley 5 Wheat 6 Molasses 7 Animals fats viii Cause scours c Proteinaceous concentrates protein supplement plant or animals i Greater then 20 protein ii Less than 18 fiber iii Relatively high energy iv Common examples include 1 Soybeen meal 2 Cottonseed meal 3

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