UA KIN 300 - Final Exam Study Guide (56 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


final exam study guide, including guest speakers

Study Guide
University of Alabama
Kin 300 - Intro to Kinesiology
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KIN 300 1st Edition Final Study Guide Colonial Period late 1700 s to mid 1800 s No formalized physical education Fitness through survival Physical training emergence of sport Transitional Period 1900 1917 Formalized curriculum Accepted methodology Acceptance 1917 1930 Emergence of gymnastic systems Late 19th Century Hunting work and little leisure time PE Accepted into the mainstream school curriculum Late 1800 s Early 1900 s Noticeable shif PE began diversifying its content to include sports Still included militaristic calisthenics like exercises but emphasis was waning Culture of Physical Training gave way to Physical Education Formalized PE curriculum began developing Accepted methodology Early 1900 s Decline of religious opposition Immigration introduced new activities Urbanization transportation and war dispersed activities Growth of leisure time Intercollegiate athletic conferences Curb abuses like betting 1st one Big Ten Comprehensive Education John Dewey progressive education Incorporated play theory 1920 s 30 s PE became an accepted subject States passed mandatory PE laws California first Teacher education developed U of A first in state of Alabama Graduate study programs began Sport continued to dominate American pop culture Review of History Women in Sport 19th century views of masculinity femininity highly stereotyped Muscular Christianity movement provided strong philosophical support for physical education sport for boys not girls Girls allowed to engage only in mild forms of exercise vigorous exercise competitive sports considered inappropriate because Women considered genetically unfit for vigorous activity believed such activity would harm them Vigorous activity thought to be unladylike New Era in History Popularity of Sport During WWI WWII interest in sports waned Spectator sports faired poorly Major shift towards participatory sports Youth sport family sport informal kinds of participation Softball exemplified shift Developed in Chicago in 1877 Required less space less equipment than baseball Became America s most popular recreational sport New Era in History Changes in Sport 1954 Supreme Court up held decision in Brown v Board of Education Eliminated segregated schools in America for males only all males play sports 1972 Title IX of the Education Amendment passed US Congress Created framework within which girls women could finally achieve equal access to physical education sport opportunities Lead to explosion in women s sports females finally get their equality to play 1975 Congress passed Public Law 94 142 Ensured rights of Americans with disabilities Eventually lead to development of Special Olympics New Era in History PE in 1940 s During WWII half of military recruits failed physical fitness test were deemed unfit for duty Lead to widespread criticism of effectiveness of American school physical education programs Forced PE programs to emphasize fitness as part of new physical activity programs Created great concern for research on fitness fitness testing Adapted PE took off due to wounded vets New Era in History PE in 1950 60 s Article on muscular fitness portrayed American kids as weak our PE system was failing 60 of American kids failed fitness test compared to only 6 of European kids In 1956 President Eisenhower formed the President s Council on Youth Fitness Kennedy spoke openly about the need to improve kid s fitness levels including writing an article in Sports Illustrated entitled The Soft American Lead to national effort to develop youth fitness programs New Era in History 1960s Kenneth Cooper Father of the Modern Fitness Movement Cooper is cited as being one of the key figures in revolutionizing field of medicine away from disease treatment to disease prevention through aerobic exercise 1968 Publication of book titled simply Aerobics Brought attention to extraordinary importance of cardiovascular fitness Founded the Cooper Aerobics Institute in Texas Developed the 12 minute and 1 5 mile fitness tests the Aerobics Point System New Era in History PE in 1950 60 s All of these events lead to two major changes Changes in PE curriculum Development of research fields including exercise science motor learning biomechanics etc Beginning of what we now know as academic discipline of Kinesiology umbrella term With widespread focus on physical fitness became necessary to investigate the outcomes of various approaches to fitness Led to development of multiple sub disciplines of Kinesiology New Era in History Today Kinesiology sub disciplines of Kinesiology Anatomy Exercise Physiology Biomechanics Motor Learning Sport Psychology Kinesiology Subdisciplines Kinesiology Anatomy Study of the human body as a mechanical system utilizes principles drawn from physics No specific course incorporated throughout Physiology Functions and activities of living organisms including all physical and chemical processes Exercise physiology The study of the physical structure of an animal Biomechanics Study of movement human in our case Study of bodily systems their reactions to stress of exercise Motor Learning Focuses on how motor skills are learned Areas motor learning control development Categories Initial Elementary Mature Sport Psychology Study of sport and psychological issues in sport Intervention examples Relaxation cue control mental imaging coping desensitization Jobs available w degree in Kinesiology Exercise Physiologist Professor of Exercise Physiology Sports Medicine Doctor PA Physical Occupational Therapist PTA OTA Chiropractor Prosthetics Athletic Trainer Strength Conditioning Coach Personal Trainer Fitness Instructor Health Promotion and Wellness Sport Psychologist Sports Historian Sports Lawyer Agent Motor Development Specialist Exercise Equipment Developer Salesman Evolution of Physical Education Following WWII with onset of Cold War looming physical fitness became a matter of national concern President Eisenhower led the cause PE became mandatory in almost every school between 1950 1975 From middle school to high school students required to either take PE or engage in sports Co ed PE classes emerged in 1950s Three philosophical movements had impact on physical education fitness sport during the post 1950s era The environmental movement Civil rights movement Fitness wellness movement Environmental Movement Provided framework for engaging in physical activity outdoors especially in wilderness areas Promoted activities such as cycling cross country skiing

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