UH BIOL 1344 - female reproductive system (2 pages)

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female reproductive system

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female reproductive system


Lecture notes for the female reproductive system

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Lecture Note
University of Houston
Biol 1344 - Hum Anat Physiol
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BIOL 1344 Lecture 26 Outline of Last Lecture I Conditions of the Testes II Other Reproductive Male Organs III Sperm Formation Outline of Current Lecture IV Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System A Internal and External Genitalia B Ovaries C Uterus D Cervix E Vagina V Ovarian Cycle Current Lecture Female Reproductive System has cyclic changes and menopause There are two main types of cycles The estrous cycle is displayed in non primates there is no discharge from the uterus and the female is only receptive to the male during breeding season The menstrual cycle is in humans and apes there is discharge from the uterus due to sloughing of the uterine tissues and it is on a 28 day cycle Internal Genitalia in the pelvic cavity there is the pair of ovaries paired fallopian tubes oviducts uterus and vaginal tube External Genitalia mons pubis and the vulva which encompasses clitoris labia majora and minora vestibule and vagina Ovaries roughly almond size and shape attached to the mesovarium which is a double fold of peritoneum Peritoneal layer suspends and anchors the ovaries Suspendory ligament attaches ovaries to the lateral body wall Ovarian ligament attaches to the broad ligament of uterus Ovarian cysts are fluid filled and viable ovum are not produced Uterus pear sized and shaped in a non pregnant woman The broad ligament is the major one Round ligament connects the uterus to the labia Utero sacral ligament attaches the inferior These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute uterus to sacrum The uterus should be ante verted With age it can become retroverted Prolapse of uterus can also occur with weakened ligaments this is when the uterus projects into the vagina it is a painful condition 2 3rds of the vagina develops from genitalia in the embryonic stage The other third is the outer portion formed by invagination In some cases the vagina can be a blind pouch which means it is not connected with the internal genitalia and the woman cannot get pregnant 1 4000 births the vagina is absent this is call Mayer Rakitonsky Kuster and Hauser condition Cervix secretes mucus which can be used to determine If the person has ovulated If the cell pattern is spread out this is thin mucus and progesterone is present so the person has ovulated If the cells create a fern pattern this is thick there is no progesterone instead there is estradiol 17 3 which is a female hormone and there was no ovulation A pap smear papanicolaou is used to test for cervical cancer Vagina no mucus acidic uterus glycogen lactic acid contains the greater vestibular glands or Bartholin glands There are about 7 million primordial follicles before birth but only about 1 5 million left at the time of birth due to follicular atresia There is no mitosis in the uterus so the number only decreases The primordial follicles goes through prophase I of Meiosis I to a primary follicle secondary follicle then to a Graafian cell Menarche is the 1st month of menstruation then cell division which had been stopped from birth continues from this point Unlike sperm eggs are as old as the woman because they are not continually created At ovulation the Graafian follicle ruptures resulting in a secondary oocyte and discharge follicle Only 1 Graafian follicle matures each month out of the 1 5 million so only about 500 follicles mature over a woman s lifetime the rest die Each month 825 follicles start maturing but only 1 remains the mature 1 is most sensitive to FSH The ovarian cycle is roughly days 1 5 are menstruation this period is the pre ovulatory phase or follicular phase day 14 is ovulation and then the post ovulatory phase or Luteal phase Proliterative phase starts after menstruation ends then the secretory phase takes over

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