TAMU ANSC 318 - Horse Nutrition and Feeding I (4 pages)

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Horse Nutrition and Feeding I

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Horse Nutrition and Feeding I


Understand the equine digestive system and begin learning requirements

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Texas A&M University
Ansc 318 - Feeds & Feeding
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ANSC 318 1st Edition Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture I Nutritional Requirements and Feed Management of Pigs Outline of Current Lecture II Equine Nutrition and Feeding a Challenges b Digestive System III Components of Diet IV Forages a caution V Concentrate Feeds a Energy Energy Density Current Lecture Equine Nutrition and Feeding Dr Josie Coverdale Texas Horse Industry 1 066 800 horses 288 000 households valued at 4 2 billion contributes 11 2 billion yr to TX economy Texas competes with California for highest number of horses Equine industry contributes more to US economy than the film industry Cost of Owning a Horse Minimum Maximum Feed 325 40 400 Hay 270 400 Immunizations 80 150 Deworming 52 211 Dentistry 80 210 60 Hoof Care 260 900 Bedding 175 290 Pest Control 50 100 Misc 129 266 Repairs 65 133 Total 1 486 100 3 060 26 74 100 These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A FREE HORSE IS NEVER FREE Challenges in Equine Nutrition Size and Breed range in size from 100 around 2 000 lbs different breeds have different energy requirements Owners feed by volume not weight I feed one coffee can of grain and 2 flakes of hay twice a day Separate feeding of forage and grain horses require forage in their diet that is not processed Equine Digestive System horses are built to be grazers and therefore do not handle extreme amounts of concentrates well Horses are strict non ruminant herbivores they do not tend to find animal product palatable Stomach 10 of GI tract limiting factor does not allow regurgitation enzymatic digestion Small Intestine 30 of GI tract enzymatic digestion Hindgut 60 of GI tract fermentative digestion Components of a Horse Diet Balanced rations consider everything nutrient requirements and nutrient calorie ratio Forages pasture hay etc VERY important in equine diets Concentrates Energy feeds oats corn barley etc protein feeds SBM CSM etc Feed additives minerals vitamins etc Supplements only supplement when needed Forage is the Foundation forage should be the primary component in diet provides daily nutrient requirements maintains integrity of GI tract minimizes vices How much forage minimum 0 75 BW day recommended 1 BW day mature horses can consume 2 to 3 BW day CAUTION Do not feed to horses sorghum sudan and sorghum sudan hybrids prussic acid nitrates quality kleingrass intake liver problems Possible Problems Fescue endophyte fungus only a problem in pregnant mares remove from pasture 90 days before parturition alfalfa cantharidin or blister beetles cause severe burn throughout GIT when ingested sweet clover dicoumarin stops blood clotting millet alkaloids dallisgrass dallisgrass toxicity ergot Concentrate Feeds must be balanced for nutrient needs consider supplemental to quality forage digestive system suited for small forage type meals large CHO meals can cause colic and or founder view as a supplement When do horses require concentrates during performance gestation and lactation Energy Soluble CHOs oats 1 25 Mcal lb corn 1 60 Mcal lb Lipid Sources vegetable oils 4 08 Mcal lb animal fats 3 61 Mcal lb Omega 3 vs Omega 6 fatty acids more omega 3 and less omega 6 is healthier for heart Energy requirements expressed as Mcal of DE day DE Concentration and Weight Density of Commonly Used Grains Grain DE Mcal lb AF basis Wt density lb Energy density DE grain bu Mcal bu Wheat 1 55 60 93 Corn 1 60 56 90 Barley 1 49 48 72 Milo 1 46 56 Oats 1 25 32 Corn and wheat have 2 25X more DE bushel compared to oats 82 40

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