UGA BIOL 1104 - Final Exam Study Guide (5 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Study guide covering lecture material on biodiversity, invasive species, mass extinctions, etc.


Pages:
5
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of Georgia
Course:
Biol 1104 - Organismal Biology
Unformatted text preview:

BIO 1104 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 25 28 Lecture 25 What are the three requirements for natural selection 1 Trait is heritable can be passed down genetically 2 Differential reproduction individuals with a certain trait reproduce at a greater rate 3 Genetic diversity variation Name and define the three main types of biodiversity 1 Genetic diversity between genetic characteristics within a species i e alleles 2 Species diversity diversity of species in a given area 3 Ecosystem diversity diversity of ecological processes habitats and communities What are some of the challenges to measuring biodiversity 1 It costs money to discover species 2 Many species are microscopic and cannot be seen with the human eye 3 Because biologists cannot count all species they must make estimates based off of assumptions which leaves room for error 4 Some habitats are mostly unexplored such as the bottom of the ocean New species are more likely to be found in Asia Africa or South America than in the U S It is unknown how many species of insects plants etc there are There are more known species of insects than any other living thing o Relatively there are very few known species of mammals Most scientists estimate that there are 10 million species of animals o They reach this estimate by observing a pattern and extrapolating Examples of patterns Species area curve pattern in the relationship between habitat and species number Patterns among species Patterns of discovery The predicted number of species of taxonomic group is always bigger than the number of species described but the magnitude of that difference may vary o Scientists are able to make more accurate estimates for larger organisms than one celled organisms such as prokaryotes or protozoa What are some of the direct use values i e goods of biodiversity 1 Food fuel medicine or building material a Humans rely on approx 20 types of plants for food i e rice wheat corn i More genetic diversity is necessary b Plants are a primary source of medicine in 80 of countries What are some of the indirect use values i e services of biodiversity 2 Climate regulation pollination nutrient recycling or cultural spiritual aesthetic reasons 3 Indirect use values provide resources and perform functions making it hard to place a monetary value on them a Ex soil water and habitat protection b Many plants depend on some form of pollination c Also provide basis for education and scientific research such as medical models i Biomimicry imitation of models in nature to solve human problems 1 I e Relating hibernating bears and trauma patients What are some of the non use values of biodiversity 4 Potential Existence value it may prove to have value in the future 5 Existence value value of knowing something exists 6 Bequest value value of knowing something will be there for future generations Lecture 26 Extinction 1 Over 90 of all species that ever lived are extinct a On average one species goes extinct every 1 000 years b But this rate is not always constant 2 In earth s history there have been at least 5 mass extinctions a This is a sudden and dramatic loss of biodiversity b Mass extinction bar 9s approximately 75 of species c Recovery requires 10 s of millions of years 3 A sixth mass extinction may be caused by humans a Reasons pollution global climate change overuse of resources overhunting harvesting etc b This is the only mass extinction resulting from one concrete cause i It is occurring at a rapid rate and may negatively affect humans c There has never been another mass extinction that was caused by 1 species 4 The last individual of a species is not usually killed by hunters habitat loss or invasive species a Often bad luck What was the book Silent Spring about It argued against the usage of the pesticide DDT which thinned the egg shells of the Dusty seaside sparrow and led to the specie s extinction The last remaining 6 individuals were all male What are some threats that can reduce a species population Habitat loss hunting and invasive species Why are small populations especially vulnerable to extinction 1 They are more effected by random events 2 Small populations lead to inbreeding which can reduce average fitness 3 Less genetic diversity leads to limited ability to adapt What was the Endangered Species Act It was passed in 1973 by Nixon and it gave the federal government the power to protect species from going extinct by giving it broad authority if the species is listed as endangered However this has led to some debate about whether environmental protection can become excessive such as in the case of Logging jobs vs Owls What are some major threats to biodiversity 1 Land use change i e habitat loss and fragmentation a i e destruction for resources contained in or on land or destruction for space for inhabiting making a living i destruction can also occur as a byproduct of human behaviors or because of fragmentation by roads or other human constructions 1 fragmentation breaking a habitat into pieces a quantity and quality decreases b creates a barrier that is dangerous to cross b What are some of the ways that land use change can impact species i Leads to a lack of habitat and other resources ii Limits geographic range of species supports fewer organisms iii Isolates into small populations iv Edge effects 1 Edge portion of an ecosystem near a perimeter 2 Edge effect influences of adjacent habitat on edge a Results in environmental difference i i e more exposed to weather noise direct sunlight chemicals less air moisture etc 3 edges have different biological composition that non edges which could lead to different predators 2 Invasive species 3 Overexploitation 4 Climate change 5 Pollution could decrease population or lead to mutation Lecture 27 Definition introduced non native alien species any organism that has entered an ecosystem outside of its region of origin How is an invasive species different from the above species An invasive species are a subset of introduced species They are also non native but its introduction also causes is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health can be low impact or high impact depending on the amount of damage caused What steps occur for an invasive species to flourish in a new environment 1 Transport organisms make it onto the vehicle either intentional or accidental 2 Introduction species makes it from vehicle to suitable habitat either intentional or accidental 3 Then either


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