UB NTR 108 - NUTRITION 108 exam 3 (11 pages)

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NUTRITION 108 exam 3



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NUTRITION 108 exam 3

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Pages:
11
School:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Course:
Ntr 108 - Human Nutrition
Human Nutrition Documents
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NUTRITION 108 EXAM III Nutrients of Hematopoietic System Hematopoietic System blood Blood cells RBC WBC platelets plasma albumin lipoprotein hormones nutrients waste bone marrow make RBC Function carry waste CO2 urea nutrients O2 glucose aminos lipoprotein Iron trace mineral cation 2 or 3 Function in Hb and Mb of muscle cofactor of energy metabolism Metabolism controlled active absorption to SI 2 35 eaten extra in feces Stored liver bone marrow ferritin stored iron transferrin iron transport Deficiency low storage low cognitive fatigue Pica eating o 30 menstruating women are deficient Anemia Microcytic small RBC fatigue low energy poor immunity o 8 menstruating women are anemic Assessment measure blood transport proteins amount and iron content liver biopsy marrow biopsy hematocrit RBC hemoglobin Risk groups poor people menstruating women preggos infants kids athletes via sweat loss ulcers wounds surgery lazy vegetarians Diet sources o Heme good in meat fish poultry bad in milk o Non heme good in tofu beans grains dry fruit leafy greens bad in iron cookware and enriched flour o Prefer acidy foods long cooking time Increase absorb HIGH NEED heme iron meat factor protein vitamin C change charge to make soluble stomach acid sugars chelators make soluble Decrease absorb LOW NEED excess calcium zinc phosphorus CZP diet fiber antacids intestine damage tannins black or herbal tea red wine Toxicity o Acute large dose intestine damage liver failure shock o Chronic o Mostly males o CVD pro oxidant kill LDL cancer pro oxidant kill DNA hemochromatosis hereditary increases iron absorption Zinc trace mineral Function cofactor in immunity energy antioxidant enzymes Deficiency lose taste can t grow lose vision poor immunity Risk groups excess iron copper diet fiber poor elderly preggos kids Diet sources high protiein foods Excess decrease copper absorption Copper trace mineral Function cofactor in iron energy antioxidant enzyme Deficiency anemia Risk groups excess zinc Diet sources beans seeds nuts organ meat water Excess decrease zinc absorption Folate water soluble vitamin Function coenzyme for amino acids DNA synthesis cell replication Deficiency depression low DNA low immunity macrocytic anemia neural tube defects Risk groups smoking alcoholics preggos some chemotherapies Diet sources enriched products good in green leafy veggies fruit beans cereal liver bad in meat and milk Important for fetal neural tube development destroyed by heat and air Vitamin B12 water soluble and largest vitamin Function folate amino acid energy RBC hormone Deficiency macrocytic anemia fatigue staggering neuro Risk groups stomach probs pernicious anemia can t absorb elderly low stomach acid vegans ileum problems Crohn s disease Diet sources microbial soil fermentation yeast meat milk eggs Absorption active in ileum intrinsic factor some passive in LI Problems low intake 20 years low intrinsic factor 3 7 years hidden by dietary folate until neuro problems develop Vitamin K fat soluble vitamin some are water soluble Function form blood clot factors and bone matrix deposits Deficiency no clots no bone mineralizing Risk groups fat malabsorption infants antibiotics Diet sources bacteria in LI liver green veggies milk Blocked by warfarin used for stroke and heart attack Water Electrolytes and Acid Base Balance Water essential major component of anything living Nutrient transport waste excretion urine feces acid base balance temp good solvent enzyme action Waste transport fat ketones CO2 protein urea CO2 carbs lactate CO2 Total body water 40 extracell blood ISF 60 intracell o Particle concentration regulated ions electrolytes Sodium major cation 1 water soluble Function extracell ion regulate fluid volume muscle nerve contraction nutrient transport Deficiency muscle cramps atrophy lose appetite Risk groups sweat vomit special diets kidney or heart disease hypertension over 51 African American Diet source processed food salt soft water soy sauce MSG Recommendations 2 300 mg day risk groups need 1 500 mg day Potassium major cation 1 water soluble Function intracell ion fluid and electrolyte balance muscle nerve function Deficiency muscle weakness Risk groups diarrhea urine uncontrolled Diabetes dehydration drugs Diet sources fresh fruits milk unprocessed food High intake helps hypertension lowers Na toxic at hyperkalemia vomit muscle weakness Chloride major extracell anion 1 follows Na K easy transport lost in sweat vomit component of HCl in stomach acid Osmosis pass solutions across semi permeable water follows ions to equalize concentration Osmotic pressure exerted by particles to draw water across membrane Renal regulation kidneys excretion and retention water balance by Na K Insensible fluid loss respiration perspiration Expended 2 L per 2000 kcal day Consumed cover urine volume of 1 2 L day replace insensible loss Excreted minimum 200 400 ml day urine Intake 1 L fluid 1 L food 0 2 L metabolism Output 0 5 L sweat 0 5 L breath 0 2 L feces 1 L urine Dehydration thirst fatigue poor CV low cognitive unstable temp no circulation Risks activity protein Na caffeine alcohol low intake environment meds Signs headache low concentration weakness dark urine Hypertension 140 90 BP 1 3 adults risk CVD stroke kidney disease Risks obesity CVD age heredity race Needs low Na weightloss exercise low alcohol high Ca K Mg vit C DASH diet rich fruit veggies fish low sat fat high fiber low salt Maternal Nutrition Importance father s sperm sucks low risk of pregnancy issues folate healthy body weight avoid drugs drinking Factors maternal weight gain 11 20 obese 15 25 overweight 25 35 normal 35 teens 30 40 underweight 25 50 twins st nd 1 25 lb week 2 and 3rd 1 lb week 300 cal d lactation 500 cal d Low weight gain risk birth asphyxia infection illness poor baby glucose Ca Premature lung liver immaturity Full term 5 lbs low fat poor glucose temp retarded growth 40x death High weight gain heavy baby complications high BP for mom obesity risk Diet bad low carbs inhibit baby glucose low maternal weight gain Nutrition folate important iron deficiency many babies reduce folate iron Protein additional 10 g d 20 Calories 15 Carbs 100 g d 50 total energy intake Vitamins 10 increase in energy o Vit D 2x Zinc 25 folate 2x iron 2x vit A 2x o Increase vit C E B Intake low fats high calcium and protein low fat milk tofu broccoli Bread Veggies Fruits Meat Milk products Normal 6 oz 2 5 cups 2 cups 5 oz 3 cups Preggo 7 oz 3 cups 3 cups 6 oz 4 cups Tobacco weed


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