IUB SPH-F 347 - Exam 3 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


Study Guide
Indiana University, Bloomington
Sph-F 347 - Hum Dev Ii:mid Chldhd Thru Adol
Hum Dev Ii:mid Chldhd Thru Adol Documents
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F347 Exam 3 Study Guide Relationships and Parenting Class Summary Parent adolescent relationship is dyad specific Parenting Behaviors caregivers engage in that are directed at adolescents More positive actions More positive relationship Parent Youth Relationships o Relationships change Parents engage in less instrumental care e g cooking cleaning waking up Can cause role confusion for the parent o Emotional support and availability become more important o Relationships become more egalitarian Shared decision making Spend less time together Spend more time with peers or alone Must balance connectedness and autonomy Parent Youth Relationships Quality o Attachment Theory specific attachment relationships with specific caregivers described in terms of security of a parent s availability and responsiveness o Individuation Perspective process by which you become self supportive gradually taking responsibility for self and actions o Both frameworks incorporate the importance of connectedness and autonomy Connectedness Warmth support security o Support from closeness with parents parent and child initiated o Reflection of attachment relationship o Facilitates individuation and becomes psychological during adolescence o Distinct from autonomy High connectedness low autonomy Low connectedness high autonomy o Perceptions of availability and responsiveness determined by current and prior experiences determines whether or not the adolescent will seek out the parent Autonomy o Desire for increased autonomy is normal Not a rejection of parents or family o Gradual process of becoming self sufficient o Behavioral autonomy Self direction over daily choices responsible for own decisions Youth beliefs about parental authority change Parents and youths have different timetables for transferring control Domains 1 Moral stealing lying etc 2 Prudential things that can cause harm drinking driving 3 Personal clothing hairstyle friendships etc 4 Social Conventions manners politeness 5 Multifaceted combo of 2 domains Parents want control over all domains teens really just want personal Emotional Autonomy o Individuation gradually taking responsibility for own actions and behavior o Developing self understanding o Less reliance on parents o Process that continues in our 20s Positive Parenting Behaviors o Support and Availability o Behavioral Control Parental monitoring Negative Parenting Behaviors o Psychological control o Harsh and or inconsistent discipline Positive and negative parenting behaviors are continuums Parental Knowledge Strongly associated with better behavioral adjustment dependent on kid s self disclosure not how much parent asks Parenting Typologies o Based on level of control and warmth High control Indulgent Involved but without limits or control Authoritative Encourages autonomy high connectedness High warmth Neglectful Uninvolved nonexistent monitoring Discipline approaches o Love withdrawal o Power assertion Authoritative Restrictive low autonomy low connectedness o Induction reason or explanation should focus more on discussing expectations not necessarily morality Parent Youth Conflict o Most do not have conflictual relationships o Conflict not necessarily bad Process of renegotiated relationship o Excessive conflict family is not adjusting well Conflict frequency o Increases from late childhood to early adolescence o More common with mothers Conflict Intensity o Most low in intensity o Increases from early to middle adolescence o Decreases from mid to late Conflict Topics Usually everyday activities Chronic Conflict Instense highly hostile o 10 20 of parent child dyads o Leads to negative outcomes Family Systems Theory o Families are made up of subsystems Parents parent child sibling child individual o Subgroups interconnected Changed in one system changes in all others bidirectional influence Hierarchically ordered parent sets the tone Suggests we should not look at family relationships in isolation Family Systems Spillover Model Parents kid relationship quality Parents relationship quality Adolescent well being y Parenting behavior Reciprocal Socialization How parents and kids influence each other e g eliciting parenting style Behavioral Genetics o PASSIVE parents pass on genes related to the outcome of their kids o ACTIVE Youths genes elicit behaviors from the family Family Environment o Shared Common experience makes siblings more alike o Non shared Unique experience makes siblings less alike Sibling Relationships o Older as caregivers and role models o Changes in sibling closeness Non biological families Divorced step and single o Most youth have very similar developmental tracks to those in first married biological families o Adolescents show greater adjustment difficulties inter parental conflict low parental monitoring and knowledge o Difficulties more common around times of family transition o Challenges Divorced less effective parenting loss economic well being Step families role ambiguity new family relationship Single parent Less economic well being more caregiving responsibilities Peer Relationships and Friendships Peers any person similar to you in age e g classmates Friends mutually recognized dyadic relationship companionship and intimacy Friendships o Greater connectedness and self disclosure o Prefer small and high quality high quality developmentally advantageous o Skills appropriate disclosure providing support effectively discuss conflict Negative friendships developmental risk factors Co rumination excessively discuss problems with friends positive friendship features but lower well being Friendship homophily We make friends with people like us Same v mixed sex friendships o Same sex friends during childhood and early adolescence inability to make same sex friends might be a risk factor o Mid adolescence mixed is more common Sex different gendered patterns socialization o Boys have more friends than girls talk more about activities o Girls have more intimacy but less stable Loneliness o Very few youths have no friends o Higher risk for adjustment problems with no friends o Loneliness on weekends is most troubling Peer Relationships Time spent with peers increases in late childhood spend most leisure time with peers Sociometric Status o Popular Youth Most liked rarely disliked positive outcome Characteristic ex good communication skills o Average Youth Liked but also disliked positive outcomes Same qualities as Popular but less skilled with peers o Neglected

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