UB BIO 201 - exam 1 notes (18 pages)

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exam 1 notes

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Pages:
18
School:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Course:
Bio 201 - Cell Biology
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bio 201 Key terms Prokaryotic before a nucleus bacteria Eukaryotic Organelle In vivo in life real life In vitro in glass experimental situation In silico in the computer data Properties of live cells Possess a genetic program and the means to use it Asexual reproduction Acquire use energy Carry out chemical reaction metabolism Engage in mechanical activities move around Respond to stimuli Self regulate Evolution Based on these properties viruses are not cells Bacteria Prokaryotic Have plasma membrane but no nucleus 01 20 2012 Has a nucleoid Not all bacteria have a flagellum or a cell wall Plant cell Eukaryotic Some plants can have both mitochondria chloroplast Animal cell Eukaryotic o exceptions Mature red blood cells don t have a nucleus ER golgi or mitochondria Theories Endosymbiont theory Eukaryotic cells ingest prokaryotic cells which lead to the formation of the organelles Eukaryotic cells lost chloroplasts Types of bonds and interactions Covalent bonds Non covalent bonds o Ionic electrostatic bonds fully charges o Hydrogen bonds partial charges o Van der Waals interactions Hydrophobic aggregations o They are hydrophobic exclusions from water Not bonds interactions or forces between molecules Lecture 4 Four main types of organic macromolecules Carbohydrates sugars polar structures o Metabolic sugars mainly used for energy Glucose starch Glycogen storage form of glucose Metabolic sugar polymer o Structural carbs make up cell wall membranes Polysaccharides complex carbs Cell walls of plants cellulose Sugars on glycoprotein sugars covalently attached and glycolipids in membranes Protein o Amino acids are identified by their side chains Polar fully charged pH 7 hydrophilic Polar but uncharged pH 7 hydrophilic Nonpolar pH 7 hydrophobic non water soluble Not lipids o Free amino acids all have both an amino carboxyl group o Amino acids are covalently attached by peptide bonds between amino carboxyl groups o Charge depends on pH pH 7 free amino acid amino and carbonyl lecture 5 01 20 2012 lecture 6 01 20 2012 Lipids Metabolic lipids Structural lipids o Phospholipids o Sterols in plants cells terminology o Free fatty acid not covalently attached to anything o Fatty acyl side chain covalently attached to something o Saturated fatty acids no double bond o Unsaturated at least one double bond o Polyunsaturated a lot of double bonds 2 or more Lye soap o Lard high pH base glycerol lye soap free fatty acid Free fatty acids become amphoteric Melting point o More double bond more fluid increasing unsaturation lower melting point o Fatty acid above its melting point more fluid Phospholipid o Polar head group PC Net charge 0 at pH 7 Head group choline Net charge 1 Head group serine Net charge 0 Head group ethanolamine Net charge 1 Head group inositol PS PE PI CL Net charge 2 Head group glycerol o Glycerol backbone o Fatty acid side chains o No net charge at pH 7 Sterol none in prokaryotes o Cholesterol None in plants Amphipathic o Testosterone Cholesterol made into more amphipathic water soluble more polar o Estrogen Phospholipid lysolipid free fatty acids strong detergents How macromolecules are broken down o 1 Break macromolecules into its building blocks mostly by hydrolysis occurs at the lysosome and cytoplasm o 2 Break down further to acetyl CoA by glycolysis occurs at the cytoplasm o 3 Conversion of acetyl CoA into TCA cycle components and high energy products like NADH Occurs in mitochondria NADH used for electon transport in mitochondria lecture 7 DNA and RNA 01 20 2012 Replication DNA DNA Transcription DNA RNA Translation RNA Protein Reverse Transcriptase RNA DNA 3 main parts of Nucleotides determines if something is RNA or DNA 1 Base tells you what it base pairs with 2 Sugar tells you if it is RNA or DNA 3 Phosphate negative charge at pH 7 0 Sugar Different in RNA and DNA Deoxyribose has a H instead of OH on 2nd Carbon on DNA only Base pairs Hydrogen bonding between base pairs A T DNA A U RNA C G both DNA polymer of deoxyribonucleotides Polypeptide polymer of amino acids protein Polysaccharide polymer of sugars complex carbohydrate or oligosaccharide Polynucleotide polymer of nucleotide DNA or RNA 3 major types of RNA all made in nucleus Ribosomal RNA rRNA make up 80 90 of RNA not translated Transfer RNA tRNA required for translation Messenger RNA mRNA required for translation Central Dogma DNA mRNA Protein DNA transcription to mRNA mRNA translation needs rRNA and tRNA to protein 2 ways to cut RNA 1 add a ribonuclease RNAse ending in ase destroying This is an enzyme and protein Use protein to cut RNA 2 Add a ribozyme Different enzyme catalytic RNA Could use RNA to cut RNA Membranes Experiments to determine what membranes are 1 E Overton used hypertonic shrinkage to estimate the composition of plasma membranes o Hypothesis like dissolves like so if membrane is hydrophobic then it should be permeable allows liquid gas to pass through and prevent hypertonic shrinking Hypertonic shrinkage Outside high solute concentration low water concentration Semi permeable membrane Inside lower solute concentration high water concentration things tend to move from high to low Adding any solute to water lowers the water concentration In a hypertonic solution water moves down its concentration from high water concentration to low Since the water concentration is lower outside water moves out cell shrinkage Water moves toward the highest solute concentration lecture 8 01 20 2012 Hypotonic solution Swelling water moves in the cell Isotonic solution Hypertonic solution Shrinking water moves out of the cell Overton s conclusion 1 Hydrophobic compounds fatty oils prevented hypertonic shrinking of plant cells permeable compounds 2 Hydrophobic membranes Typical membrane structures Gorter and Grendel s experiment proposed that membranes are lipid bilayers o 1 Used red blood cells RBC because the only membrane in RBC is the plasma membrane o 2 Determined the surface area o 3 Extracted the lipids and measured the surface area of it on a monolayer to see if it matched with the calculated surface area Extracting lipids from cells 1 Add RBC to hexane dissolves lipid 2 Add water to the hexane interacts like oil and water 3 Take off the hexane layer has all the lipids measuring the area on monolayer 1 Spread lipid on top of water 2 Monolayer of phospholipid forms spontaneously o results measured surface area was 2x the calculated area the plasma membrane of RBC is a phospholipid bilayer correction plasma membrane


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