UIUC NRES 201 - Soil Organisms and Ecology (3 pages)

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Soil Organisms and Ecology

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Soil Organisms and Ecology


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign
Nres 201 - Introductory Soils
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NRES 201 Lecture 32 Outline of Last Lecture I Earthworms II Ants III Termites IV Nematodes V Protozoa Outline of Current Lecture VI Plant Roots VII Algae VIII Fungi IX Bacteria and other soil microbes X Factors affecting microbial growth Current Lecture Plant Roots Represent an important group of soil organisms Typically occupy about 1 of the soil volume Supply C and energy for use by other soil organisms Effects on soil o Physical penetration Roots follow existing cracks and channels Their growth enlarges pores o Moisture uptake Improves soil aggregation by stabilizing organic mineral bonds and promoting soil shrinkage and cracking o Organic C input Stimulates microbial growth and activity Promotes humus formation mainly from belowground biomass which represents 15 70 of total plant biomass Algae Occur mainly near the soil surface because they need light for photosynthesis Some species can function in the dark as heterotrophs Many species are flagellated and motile Cultured for bio energy production Fungi Tremendous diversity with millions of soil fungal species These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Aerobic heterotrophs that require O2 and organic C Fungi can be huge they can be micro or macroscopic Fungal characteristics o Molds o Mushroom Fungi Fungal activities o Residue decomposition vital for maintaining soil fertility and humus formation o Fungi are more efficient than bacteria for utilizing complex organic substrates o Nutrient recycling o Fungal hyphae may improve soil aggregation o Bio control Many fungi are highly beneficial to humankind Some produce toxins that reduce competition from bacteria or other fungi A few species trap nematodes o Pathogenic behavior some fungi can cause plant disease by producing chemicals that allow invasion of plant tissues Mycorrhizae o A term meaning fungus root o Refers to the symbiotic association between a

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