TAMU FSTC 326 - TEST 4 notes (4 pages)

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TEST 4 notes



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TEST 4 notes

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4
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Fstc 326 - Food Bacteriology
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TEST 4 November 12 2014 QUIZ OVER WHAT DR HALE SAID WATCH VIDEO ON HYPERLINK Microbiology of fresh processed and fermented meats Defining meat o Federal meat inspection act 21 U S code part 601 o Livestock domesticated species suitable for meat products production are cattle sheep goat swine and equine horse mule o Wild game animals can also be useful for meat products processing but the majority of products are from domesticated animals Hunters Loins sausage products Meat yielding animals o Healthy animals are assumed to have muscles essentially sterile o Carry microbes in GI tract on hide skin pelt hooves in mouths o Lymph nodes concern over Salmonella in cattle lymph nodes and transmission to ground beef Sources of microbes on carcasses during processing o Stick knife o Hide skin pelt removal removal processes preventing carcass cross contamination o Cutting knives implements o GI contents evisceration process o Productions employees personal hygiene limiting cross contamination o Process environment sanitary condition Carcass Safety Interventions o Most effective following efficient processing in sanitary environment o Interventions Trimming of carcasses Hot water Chemical interventinos acids other compounds o Chilling Microbes on Fresh Meat o Gram negative aerobic bacteria facultative rods Enterobacteriaceae o Gram positive rods cocci aerobic facultative and fermentative genera Enterococci staphylococci micrococci LAB o Molds yeasts primarily spoilage concerns Most problematic peniccillium mucor molds candida yeasts Factors affecting microbial growth on fresh meat o Meat as a source of nutrients for microbial growth o Post mortem Ph decline o Oxygenation redox potential of meat o o o o Consumption of 2 by microbial growth Packaging of product in vacuum MAP drives fermentative microbes growth Meat aw 0 98 0 99 Storage temperature Packaging characteristics O2 permeable or barrier packages Extrinsic factor Storage environment relative humidity Extrinsic factor NOVEMBER 14 2014 Microbiological spoilage of fresh meat all enzymatically driven o Lipolysis Liberate fatty acids from di and tri glycerides Some break down phospholipids Some break down free fatty acids Volatile acids flavor smell in meat over time of spoilage o Proteolysis Gram negative psychotrophs Aerobic organisms Compounds that add REAL putrefactive smells flavors to meat o Utilization fermentation of carbohydrates Aerobic use of sugars Acids can be formed May produce lactace or pyruvate Anaerobic fermentation lactic acid principal fermentation product gas production Clostridia lactic acid bacteria Some yeasts will lactacte gas Slime rope production More often in processed meats than fresh meats Fresh meats under aerobic conditions Secrete polysaccharides Gas fermentation package deformation blown pack Grinding of meat o Non intact products o Diagram on bottom of p 4 o Destroy fibril integrity of muscle o Enhanced spoilage potential Ground meat is perishable o Tray packed in O2 permeable film PVC allows aerobic psychotrophic growth o Shelf life concerns 3 6 days max at retail Microbial loads on tissue Grinding homogenizes and exposes meat surfaces for microbial use Sanitary condition of grinder and cross contamination between batches via grinder If it s not sanitary you re basically just stirring in e coli salmonella etc o Made from trimmings produced during carcass fabrication of cuts Not allowed to just pick up the scraps up off the floor for ground beef we know that scraps skin of meat is contaminated with bacteria so it is not used in ground beef DUH o Blended together lean and fat to desired fat content and ground o Shorter shelf life on aerobic packaging vs vacuum packaging E coli 0157 H7 Non 0157 STEC o Disease syndromes Hemmorhagic colitis HUS Thrombotic thrombocytopenia TTP Non 0157 serotypes Cooking control 160 degrees F internal temp Internal patty color temp not a reliable indicator of doneness o USDA identifies as adulterants in ground and non intact beef products Adulterant FMIA part 601 Deleterious substances injurious to health Not subjected to further processing so if pathogen detected must divert to further processing or destroy o Tested according to 2 class attribute sampling plan N 60 c 0 M NA m 1 CFU sample N is whatever sample back lot size is C is how many will be allowed to fail o Other non intact meat classes types Fed Reg 1999 expansion of products covered under adulterant status Comminuted flaked minced cubed mechanically tenderized Gyro formed and shaped NON O157 stect o Big six stereotypes 026 045 0103 0111 0121 01245 o USDA began testing beef in 2010 to assay prevalence in beef supply o Adulterants in 2001 e coli 0157 H7 in 1994 o USDA testing in 2012 1 74 prevalence in raw trimmings used for grindings 19 3 in veal sampling o Where s the focus need to be More consumption of beef High prevalence of veal Pork safety and Trichinella o T spiralis T britovi o Parasite nematode helminth o Once associated with undercooked pork now wild game has higher prevalence o Symptoms Cyst ingestion pain vomiting diarrhea o Prevention Restricted access confinement production Proper cooking 140 degrees F inactivates larvae USDA cooking recommendations to consumers 145 degrees F Freezing of meat USDA recommendations 160 degrees F ground pork uncooked sausage Tapeworm Taenia spp o T Solium pork o T Saginata beef o Cooking properly destroys o Low incidence in U S CAN spread via poor personal hygiene from shedding individuals o Most frequent in areas of world where raw under cooked pork beef consumption highest o Cysticercosis seizures may occur Meat curing o Curing chemical additives preservatives used to fix meat color improve flavor and preserve product o Main ingredients in curing NaCl sugar nitrates nitrites cur accelerants erythrobate ascorbate reducing agents o Breakdown of nitrites to nitrous acid and then to nitric oxide induces anti clostridial effect Prevention of proper spore outgrowth post germination Low REDOX potential in meat enhances effect at PH 4 5 5 5 o Perigo factor presence of nitrate in meat plus high heat cooking induces enhanced antimicrobial impact in canned cured product Spam canned ham Perishable Non Shelf stable raw cured salted o Bacon corned beef Perishable Cooked but not fully cooked o Pickle cured o Heat processed color stabilization 121 130 DEGREES F Not sufficient to inactivate Trichinella Vacuum packing Refrigeration freezing Full cooking required pre consumption Microbial


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