TAMU FSTC 326 - november 19 guest lecture (16 pages)

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november 19 guest lecture



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november 19 guest lecture

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Pages:
16
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Fstc 326 - Food Bacteriology
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Food Microbiology Safety 2007 Pathogens Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp are the two pathogens most commonly associated with poultry meat USDA 1995 CDC 1990 The intestinal tract of birds constitutes a major reservoir of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp Listeria monocytogenes RTE products Chapter 10 h p www healthypeople gov document pdf Volume1 10Food pdf all applies to food sources not just meat poultry and processed egg products 3 DIDN T MEET GOALS IN 2010 HOW TO DECREASE SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLBACTER 60 sec carcass rinse Salmonella below 7 5 No more than 5 positive out of 51 Campylobacter below 10 4 No more than 8 positive out of 51 Also Monitoring Serotypes linked to Food Borne Illness http www fsis usda gov OPPDE rdad FRPubs 2009 0034 pdf Salmonella below 7 5 Campylobacter below 10 4 1 ml samples direct plating no enrichment Also Monitoring Serotypes linked to Food Borne Illness 2 400 different serotypes Top 5 of 2009 isolated from broilers Enteritidis Kentucky Typhimurium Var Copenhagen Heidleberg Typhimurium Salmonella will be serotyped and linked to those of human health significance CDC Facilities be ranked as low 0 2 medium 2 4 or high 5 based on numbers of serotypes linked to food borne illnesses Medium and high facilities will be scheduled for a Food Safety Assessment Positive 75 of all A sets have fewer than serotypes linked to serotypes linked to human health CDC four USDA FSIS Profile of Broiler Salmonella Serotypes from Analyzed HACCP Verification Samples 1998 2010 Serotypes 1998 Serotypes 2010 Kentucky Kentucky Heidelberg Enteritidis Typhimurium variant Typhimurium 5 Copenhagen Typhimurium Heidelberg Hadar Typhimurium Source USDA FSIS www fsis usda gov PDF Serotypes Profile Salmonella 2010 pdf page 99 FSIS New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Turkeys Sponge 50 sq cm thigh and 50 sq cm back 100 sq cm 10 vertical and 10 horizontal Salmonella below 1 7 no more than 4 positive in 56 samples below 1 1 Campylobacter no more than 3 positive in 56 samples Site Tested Log10 CFU mL Pre scald Post scald 4 7 1 8 Post pick 3 7 Pre evisceration 3 4 Pre chiller 2 3 Post chill 1 5 Growout Transport Scalding Live hang Picking Immobilization Evisceration Major points of cross contamination Packaging Further Processed Products Bleed out Immersion Chilling Sorting Aging CHILLING FOR 4 HOURS AND FOR TURKEYS IT S 8 HOURS IN BROILER Adapted from Berrang and Dickens 2000 J Appl Poul Res 9 43 47 Best opportunity for reduction of pathogens PICKING BIRDS TEND TO PECK AT THE GROUND BEFORE SLAUGHTER INTESTINAL TRACK MAY NOT BE 100 EMPTY FECES CAN COME OUT CHILLING COMMON CHILL TANK Considered to take care of most naturally occurring levels of Campylobacter If we can control Campylobacter we can control Salmonella and or that would be on carcasses post chill new philosophy o o TWO LOG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE STANDARDS BASED ON PREVALENCE Prevalence and levels of Salmonella on postchill carcasses are much lower than Campylobacter IF CAMYPLOBACTER IS UNDER CONTROL SALMONELLA IS UNDER CONTROL o CAMPYLOBACTER IS MORE RESISTANT THAN SALMONELLA o ONLINE REPROCESSING OLR CHILLER FINISHING CHILLER DIP PARTS DIP Antimicrobial Efficacy is Dependent on Contact Time Coverage Concentration Antimicrobials Chlorine Compounds BEST USE IN CHILLERS Gas or liquid monochloramine 20 50 ppm free chlorine chiller pH 6 optimal to form HOCL Lower activity by organic material Peracetic Acid Spectrum FMC Mixed with hydrogen peroxide 15 85 ppm in chillers 400 700 ppm in finishing chillers Acidified Sodium Chlorite Sanova 500 1200 ppm dip applications 150 ppm chiller application Cetylpyridinium Chloride Cecure 0 8 max generally applied as a drench 0 6 good results pre chill 0 4 good results post chill Bromine Bromitize 100 ppm Effective on parts but not whole birds Antimicrobial application in a Finishing Chiller or post chill dip tank more efficient and cost effective Treating much smaller volumes of water 400 500 gallons Primary chiller holds 20 50 000 gallons Short dwell time Bactericidal activity of treatment tends to be more effective Morris Associates CPC cetylpyridium chloride Na Sodium Some indicate Brushes ASC acidified sodium chlorite Most indicate pH control for Chlorine ASC acidified sodium chlorite CPC cetylpyridium chloride Most indicate pH control for Chlorine PARTS DECONTAMINATION UNIT Morris and Associates PARTS DECONTAMINATION UNIT Advantages Small footprint Higher concentration of antimicrobial used Better kill than spray applications Good Coverage Short Dwell time Contact time 20 sec Low water volume 13 gallons Antimicrobial mixed with clean water Morris and Associates log CFU sample s Po ve iti a eg N e tiv er at W l Ch in or e A PA 07 0 A PA 1 0 PC C 4 0 0 6 0 4 0 1 CP C CP C PA A r Ch lo rin e 0 PA 07 A W at e e N eg at iv e Po si t iv log CFU sample 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 PC C 6 0 Spray applications have to be used multiple times to be effective Immersion or dip tank application do work Over all plant sanitation is key to preventing Salmonella from building up in the environment How effective is your sanitation program Biomapping can help you track trends If Salmonella increases over time there could be a sanitation problem Use biomapping to track trends to help identify problems Can use or APC to demonstrate process control Mechanically Deboned Poultry Meat Equipment Piston Drum Auger Beehive Auger Beehive principle adjustable collar or cone tip to control pressure Loading hopper Beehive Schematic Shelf life and quality impacted by Heat generation Microbiological loads Cone Auger on input and product Hard residue bone tendons cartilage Soft material muscle fat nerves skin marrow maximize soft tissue recovery decrease collar diameter and hole size to increase pressure some bone comes through with increased pressure law 1 bone in finished product measured as 0 25 added calcium Holes diameter depends Collar Fecal contamination does not equal a food safety hazard


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