UIUC PHIL 110 - Muslim (3 pages)

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Brief overview of the Muslim religion and Sufism and its beliefs and practices

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign
Phil 110 - World Religions
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Lecture 23 Outline of Last Lecture I Dogmatic Theology Kalam Eighth Tenth Century II Many Meanings III What is Kalam IV Why Kalam V Two Approaches to the Role of Reason VI Traditionalism VII Rational Theology VIII Islamic Philosophy What has Athens to do with Mecca IX Philosphy Reason and Revelation X Rational Inquiry XI Interpretation XII Sufism XIII Sufism and Reason XIV Unveiling Kashf Outline of Current Lecture XV What is Shi a XVI Who is Ali XVII The Origin PHIL 110 1st Edition Ali and His Followers Imamat Husain and Shi ism 680 CE Formative Period Shi ism and Sunnism Shi ism Beliefs and Practices Sufism The Path Doctrine and Practice Stations Attar s Illustration Practices Remembrance Dhikr Dhikr The Source Current Lecture XXX What is Shi a a Shi a literally means followers b In Islamic history those who expressed a special devotion and loyalty to Ali are called collectively Shi at Ali Ali s followers or Party or more simply the Shi a c Shi a number 130 195 millions or 15 20 percent of the total XXXI Who is Ali a Muhammad s cousin b son in law XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII XXIII XXIV XXV XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX c he was raised by muhammad d the first to believe in muhammad e a warrior known of his heroism The Origin a death of Muhammad 632 CE marked the beginning of the split in muslim community succession crisis b Most muslims the forebears of the Sunnis at the time followed the tribe tradition to which a council of elders would choose the most senior and respected elder to become the head of the state XXXIII Ali and His Followers a rejected the new authority on the account that the prophet himself had appointed Ali as his successor b He is Muhamad s trustee who could understand and interpret the inner meaning of Islam as opposed to merely implementing its outwards practices c He is the Imam XXXIV Imamat a These speical spiritual qualities were also the qualities of Ali s descendants through his son Husain b These qualities were not acquired but were given by God to those whom he has chosen XXXV Husain and Shi ism 680 CE a The Shi a view become crystallized at the battle of Karbala in 608 CE b Husain refused to admit the authority of the Caliph c The stance is ended by masscring d Husai along with his family and his 72 follows XXXVI Formative Period a Ja afar al Sadiq the sixth Imam 765 CE b The founder of Shi a Law and Theology c His Imamat lasted 34 years d Politically quietest e the focus was on protecting the community promoting education XXXVII Shi ism and Sunnism a Sunnism took shape around the belief in the injuunction of the majority and the power of communal consensuus b Shia did not put much stock in majority opinion in matters of religion Truth is vested not int he practices of community of the believers but in the virtuous leadership of the Prophet and his descendants the imams XXXVIII Shi ism Beliefs and Practices a emphasis on theology and philosophy b philosophy on the estoeric dimension of Qur an c A special place was given to the veneration of the Imams d Imams represent divenely inspired leaders of the community as well as models of suffering and sacrifice in the face of tyranny and oppression XXXIX Sufism a a major popular religious movement within Sunni and Shi a Islam b Esoteric path or spiritual discipline by which one seeks not only to follow but to know God c mere submitting and following the law is not enough XXXII d deep devotional love of God for the sake of direct personal experience of His presence XL The Path Doctrine and Practice a the path marked by various spiritual states and stations b State is a mood that the Sufi would experience for a short time that requires a certain practice It is a gift from God c station is a permanent level that marks the spirtitual progress on the ascending path to God d The spirtitual progress must be supervised by a mster Shaykh XLI Stations Attar s Illustration a The Valley of Quest b The Valley of Love c The Valley of Understanding d The Valley of independence and detachment e The Valley of Unity f The Valley of Astonishment and Bewilderment g The Valley of Annihilation and Subsisting XLII Practices a Observance of the religous practices b fear of god and love of god c repentance d abstinence from worldly delights e seclusion f remembrance of God XLIII Remembrance Dhikr a is not audible but consists of inner movement and feelings b the heart contemplates God s beauty and majesty in its inner recesses c it is throgh which the sufi perceives God s attributes and sees the light of the beauty of essential unity d reveals the reality of absolute truth XLIV Dhikr The Source a The Qur an Mention God often b Intepreted by the Sufi literally and symbolically to mean c Constant remembering of God through recitation of the Qur an praise prayer and contemplating the signs of God in nature d the most accepted form is the quiet and inward way

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