Pitt NROSCI 0080 - Exam 3 Study Guide (8 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


Study Guide
University of Pittsburgh
Nrosci 0080 - Brain and Behavior
Brain and Behavior Documents
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NROSCI 0080 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide What are the two major types of stroke Which type is generally more severe and less treatable Which type can often be treated with t PA tissue plasminogen activator o Ischemic Stroke lack of blood flow to the brain usually due to a clot o More treatable less severe T PA breaks down the clot Hemorrhagic Stroke burst vessel bleeding into the brain Usually results in an ischemia downstream of the hemorrhage T PA would be disastrous if administered to a patient suffering from a hemorrhagic stroke Why has the documented incidence of Alzheimer s disease increased sharply during the past 100 years o The average life span is much longer o In Alzheimer s disease what are the plaques and tangles Do these ever appear in the brain of healthy normally aging individuals o Plaques accumulation of unprocessed A beta protein usually present in a smaller cleaved form o Tangles intracellular tangles of cytoskeletal elements in dead neurons o Not usually seen in the brains of healthy individuals How can PET imaging help to diagnose Alzheimer s disease o Our diagnostic abilities have sharpened Plaques can be detected with PET images with Pittsburgh Compound Describe explicit and implicit memory How are they related to procedural and declarative memory o Explicit Declarative memories of people things events etc o Knowing that Implicit Non declarative memories of how to do things motor memory not consciously aware of Knowing how to Describe episodic memory o Memory of autobiographical events o Emotional What are the three stages of memory o Immediate seconds o Short Term minutes hours Can be maintained through rehearsal o Long Term lifetime What are the neural circuits for implicit explicit and emotional memory o o o Implicit Sensory motor information neocortex basal ganglia ventral thalamus premotor cortex Modulated by dopamine Explicit Sensory motor information rest of neocortex temporal lobe prefrontal cortex medial thalamus feedback mechanism Modulated by acetylcholine serotonin noradrenaline Emotional Runs through the limbic system amygdala Patient H M became faster and more accurate at solving a certain type of block puzzle over time although he never remembered having done the puzzle before Explain why he did not remember having done the puzzle Explain why H M was still able to get better at the puzzle each time he tried it o The hippocampus has no role in procedural memory but plays a role in episodic memory He does not remember preforming the task before but his procedural memory is very much in tact What is the role of the hippocampus in explicit memory o Memory consolidation through the hippocampus Consolidates memories into long term storage What is the role of the frontal lobes in explicit memory o Location of stored explicit memories o There s no specific location of memories they re all around the frontal lobe What is classical conditioning Explain what each term means unconditioned stimulus unconditioned response conditioned stimulus conditioned response o The subjects learns to associate a neutral stimulus with an event and therefore an autonomic response US the event naturally eliciting the autonomic response UR autonomic response CS neutral stimulus paired with the US CR autonomic response to the CS the same as the UR Describe work done by Ian Pavlov o Pavlov conditioned dogs to associate a sound with feeding The sound was enough to elicit the autonomic response of salivation What is fear conditioning What is an important brain region needed for fear conditioning o Fear conditioning is pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a fear response to the point where the neutral stimulus alone evokes the fear response o How do neurons get stored in long term memory what process must take place o Memory consolidation involving the hippocampus o Physical remodeling of the neural circuitry How can sleep be studied in the laboratory What are EEG EMG and EOG o The amygdala is necessary for fear conditioning Subjects are hooked up to a series of electrodes EEG records brainwaves EMG records muscle movements EOG records eye movements What are the types of brain rhythms o Beta Rhythm waking state o Alpha Rhythm relaxed state o More spaced out exaggerated beta rhythms Delta Rhythm sleeping state Extremely regular waves Theta Rhythm drowsy state o Fast waves Slow activity pattern What is the difference between REM and non REM sleep o o Non REM sleep has 4 distinct stages with low muscle tone Stage 1 drowsiness increased amplitude lower frequency of brain waves Stage 2 sleep spindles Stage 3 moderate deep sleep even higher amplitude and lower frequency Stage 4 deepest slowest wave sleep delta waves even higher amplitude and lower frequency When an individual is in stage 4 sleep it is the hardest to wake them up REM sleep rapid eye movement muscle paralysis of large muscle groups twitching of smaller muscles Similar brain waves to a waking state Neural activity mimics that of tasks preformed that day What is the experimental evidence that sleep can play a role in solidifying and organizing events in memory o PET imaging during tasks and during REM sleep What parts of the cortex are associated with language processing o Left hemisphere Where in the brain are Broca s and Wernicke s areas located o Broca s left inferior frontal lobe o Wernicke s left temporal lobe What brain changes are associated with language development When is the critical period for language acquisition o There is increased dendritic branching interconnections and myelination of language areas o Language onset is 1 2 years critical period 1 6 years Languages learned after the age of 6 requires conscious explicit learning memory How can damage to cortical language areas affect language function o If the damage happens early enough you can still develop language skills the right hemisphere compensates for the damage Describe cerebral asymmetry o Different cortical hemispheres specialize in different tasks o The Wada test briefly anesthetizes one hemisphere for experimental purposes The left and right hemispheres are connected via the corpus collosum They control movement sensation from the opposite side of the body Right spatial tasks Left language What is split brain surgery What are the consequences Can visual input from the left visual field reach the right hemisphere of the split brain patients Can their hemispheres communicate with each other o The surgery severs the

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