TAMU ANSC 107 - Nutrients and Feedstuffs I (7 pages)

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Nutrients and Feedstuffs I

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Nutrients and Feedstuffs I


Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Ansc 107 - General Animal Science
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ANSC 107 1nd Edition Lecture 21 Outline of previous lecture I Digestion a Monogastric b Ruminant II Urea cycle Outline of current lecture I Nutrition II Water III Lipids IV VFA V Carbs VI Vitamins a A D E K B Thiamin Current lecture 1 Nutrition a The study of how the body uses nutrients in feed to sustain life and for productive purposes b 50 80 of total cost in livestock production is feed related 2 Nutrient a A component of feed that aids in the support of life 3 Feed a Any material after ingestion by the animal is capable of being digested absorbed and utilized b Not all feed is utilized i If it was true we would have 100 efficient 4 Maintenance These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute a What to consume to maintain body weight 5 Diet a What feeding 6 Ad libitum a Buffet 7 Limit fed a Limited on what you can eat 8 Components of animals feed a Water b Dry matter i Inorganic matter ii Organic matter 1 Carbohydrates 2 Lipids 3 Protein 4 Vitamins 9 Water a Function i Transportation of nutrients and metabolic waste ii Chemical reaction iii Regulation of body temperature b Sources i Drinking water ii Water in feed 1 30 is water iii Metabolic water 1 Chemical reaction 10 Routes of water loss a Urine b Feces c Vaporization from lungs and dissipation through the skin d Sweat through sweat glands 11 Factor affecting water intake a Temperature i Hot drink more b Feed type i Dryer feed more water need c Pasture d Water type quality good vs bad e Stage of production i Most water intake is during lactation 12 Protein a Contains carbon hydrogen oxygen and NITROGEN b Structures of proteins i Composed of amino acid c Expensive to feed d Need declines with age 13 High quality proteins a Contains complete balance of essential amino acids b Animal protein is high quality c Plant protein are not always high quality d Microbial protein has always been assumed to be balanced for the essential amino acids but recent studies indicate that some amino acids may still be limiting 14 Undergrad able protein a Wider array of Amino Acids b No limiting amino acids c More efficient growth d Bypass protein e Ex fethermea bloodmeal 15 Lipids a Fats that contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen b Structure of fat c Glycerol backbone with one two or three fatty acids attached by an ester linkage i Monoglyceride good one ii Diglyceride iii triglyceride d Fatty acids range in length from 2 24 carbon i Unsaturated healthy ii Saturated no double bonds between carbon e Higer energy density than other nutrients gross energy i Can of ensure more energy dense ii Energy is most limiting thing in diets iii Fats are higher in energy than anything else f Three fatty acids are the end products of carbohydrate digestion in the ruminant These volatile fatty acids are produced by microbial fermentation i Acetic 2 carbon grass fed ii Propioninc 3 carbon white fat high grain iii Butyric 4 carbon 16 Volatile Fatty Acids a Three fatty acids are the end product of carbohydrate digestion in the ruminant b Produced by microbial fermentation c Energy source form ruminant i Similar to glucose in monogastrics d Acetic 2 carbon e Propionc 3 carbon f Butyric 4 carbon 17 Carbohydrates a Carbohydrates contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen b Fromed by phostosyntheses c Ligin not digest i Has beta linkages d Alpha linkages are digestable 18 Monosaccharides one sugar molecule a Glucose b Galactose c Fructose d Ribose 19 Disaccharide 2 sugar molecule a Sucrose b Lactose c Cellobiose 20 Polysaccharides a Many sugar b Simple carbohydrates alpha linkage of glucose molecules i Amylose plant starch ii Glycogen animal starch 21 Complex carbojydrates beta linkage of glucose molecules a Cellulose b Others hemicellulose and lignin 22 Classification of vitamins a Fat soluble vitamins i A e oil D sun K b Water soluble vitamins i B and C c Roles i Regulates metabolisms ii Antibody synthesis 23 Vitamin A a Found in green leafy forages b Beta carotene converted to vitamin A by enyzmes in intestinal wall c Dry dormant or heat damaged forages contain little vitamin a d Vitamin a is stored in the liver 4 6 months e Night blindness is associated with deficiency f Decreases in spermatogenesis and fetal reabsorption 24 Vitamin D a Thought to be provided by sunlight i Cholecalciferol animals ii Ergocalciferol plant b Function i Enhance intestinal absorption mobilization and retention of Ca and P into the body ii Rickets and urinary calculi c Very little stored in body d Acts as a type of hormone 25 Vitamin E a Tocopherois b Intra and intercellular antioxidants i Free radical scavengers ii Prevent oxidation of lipids within membranes 1 No wrinkle c Associated with selenium i Hand to hand with vitamin e d Help protect cells from phagocytosis and associated byproducts 26 Vitamin K a Needed for normal blood clotting b Watch some types of legumes specifically clovers that produce dicumarol c Sources are green leafy plants d Some production by gut bacteria i Rat poison cure 27 Vitamin B a Ruminant only need b vitamin when given anitbodies 28 Thiamin a Vitamin b1 is found in whole grain and starchy roots b Coenzymes A needed in krebs cycle c Disease in ruminant i Polioenceopholomaiacra 1 Common in grain fiber producing 2 Brain shut down star gaze laying down with legs running

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