GSU BIOL 1104K - Exam 4 Study Guide (7 pages)

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Exam 4 Study Guide

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Exam 4 Study Guide


Study Guide
Georgia State University
Biol 1104k - Introductory Biology Ii
Introductory Biology Ii Documents
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BIOL 1104 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures Endocrine Job maintain ECF extracellular fluid ISF interstitial fluid homeostasis Plasma cells blood Hormone molecule that is carried by the blood to a target to cause an effect o Target effector that has a receptor to a specific hormone o 2 kinds Protein water soluble receptor on cell surface Steroid fat soluble intracellular receptor diffuses through membrane Germ layers controlled differently o Ectoderm nervous and dermal tissue o Endoderm secretory neuroendocrine Glands o Nervous hypothalamus posterior pituitary adrenal medulla o Endocrine thyroid anterior pituitary parathyroid adrenal cortex pancreas ovary testes Pituitary o Posterior neural cell bodies of neurons that are in the hypothalamus produce hormones They project into the post pituitary They release hormones directly into the blood here o Anterior endocrine neurons in the hypothalamus release tropic hormones into a capillary system at the blood brain barrier They turn into arteries and then back into capillaries at the anterior pituitary This is called a portal system These hormones cause the release of different hormones into the capillaries which then go to their targets Composite glands glands that have both neural and endocrine components o Examples adrenals and pituitary Hormones o Aldosterone regulate K Na o Cortisol regulate sugar Posterior pituitary hormones o AVP ADH antidiuretic hormone target kidney reduce urine production by retaining water Increase in blood osmolality causes release of it o OXY oxytocin smooth muscle contraction of mammary glands and uterus Anterior pituitary hormones o Hypothalamus ant pit target negative feedback o GHRH growth hormone releasing hormone GH growth hormone liver IGF1 o TRH thyroid releasing hormone TSH thyroid stimulating hormone thyroid thermogenesis and thyroxine TH needs iodine o GnRH gonadotropin releasing hormone LH FSH ovary testes estrogen testosterone o CRH corticotropin releasing hormone ACTH adrenocorticotropin releasing hormone adrenal cortex cortisol o PRH prolactin releasing hormone Prolactin breast milk letdown Organs o Adrenals Epinephrine and norepinephrine has various targets Fight flight positive feedback direct nerve innervation Cortisol has various targets Increase glucose and decrease inflammation o Pancreas Insulin targets liver and muscle Decrease blood sugar by uptake and turns into glycogen Glucagon targets liver and fat cells Increase blood sugar by release breakdown of glycogen o Parathyroid target bone and kidney Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium Needed for muscle contraction nerves and nerves Calcitonin decreases blood calcium rare o Sex organs Androgens released from testes to various targets Estrogen and progesterone from ovaries to various targets Nervous system Excitability develop and propagate action potentials nerves and muscles Terms o Voltage V potential energy o Potential mV voltage difference between two points o Current I movement of charge o Resistance R stop charge movement o Insulator increases resistance lipids like myelin o Conductor decrease resistance water ions Resting membrane potential voltage difference across the membrane o Due to potassium leaky K channels o Inside is more negative than outside o K is more concentrated inside and Na is more concentrated outside o 70mV Na K pump o Pumps ions against their concentration to reestablish resting membrane potential Na out and K in Action potential o 70mV All gates closed except leaky K channels o 50mV threshold Na gates open Positive feedback causes more Na channels to open o 40mV Na gates close and K gates open Positive feedback causes more K gates to open Absolute refractory period action potentials can t fire o 90mV K channels are slow to close so hyperpolarizing occurs o 70mV Na K pump has restored RMP Parts of neurons o Dendrites receive information cell body axon axon terminals synaptic clef o Neurons make up 10 of brain Glial cells support cells are the rest o Nodes of ranvier gaps in myelin along neurons Salutatory conduction electricity jumps nodes o Speed due to diameter of neurons and degree of myelination Multiple sclerosis is due to a degeneration of myelin which causes misfiring of neurons o Afferent to CNS efferent to effector interneurons Graded potentials o These occur only in the dendrites o Amplitude modulated amount of ion flowing in determines amount of charge buildup determined by amount of neurotransmitter NT o Yields frequency of action potentials o high amplitude makes high frequency makes high NT volume Two divisions of nervous system o Somatic conscious acetylcholine skeletal muscle excitatory dual innervation o Autonomic subconscious NE and Ach smooth muscle cardiac muscle glands reciprocal innervation Sympathetic epinephrine and norepinephrine Parasympathetic acetylcholine Muscles Terms o Ligament attaches bone to bone o Tendon attaches muscle to bone Striated due to sarcomeres o Sarcomere functional unit of the motor system o Thin actin and thick myosin filaments Somatic nervous system acetylcholine Myelinated Neuromuscular junction where nerves meet muscles Motor unit 1 motor neuron and all its innervated fibers o Large unit lots of fibers no fine movement but big force thigh o Small unit few fibers fine movement but small force fingers Action potentials o Acetylcholine receptors at motor end plate o Na comes in which causes a Ca influx which causes contraction o Ach is inactivated at the synapse Contraction o Sliding filament theory Sarcomere shortens not the individual fibers thus causing the muscle to shorten and generate force Calcium allows actin to interact with myosin ATP activates myosin This causes contraction ATP is also needed to relax the muscle o Sarcoplasmic reticulum Stores Ca in the muscle cells ATP is needed to get Ca back into it o 1 action potential yields a long increase in Ca twitch o Sustained contraction is called tetany Calcium stays high o Isotonic force is greater than the load o Isometric load is great than the force o Muscle fatigue happens when there is no ATP so the muscle can t relax which causes a cramp Cardiovascular Arteries maintain pressure during heart relax due to arterial elastic recoil Arterioles regulate pressure and veins regulate volume Functional unit is the capillary Cardiac muscle o Striated o Fibers must contract in sync o Autorhythmic don t need a neuron Area of the heart that beats fastest controls the heart atrium Order of

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