NCSU CH 101 - Chemistry Formulas (6 pages)

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Chemistry Formulas



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Chemistry Formulas

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Pages:
6
School:
North Carolina State University
Course:
Ch 101 - Chemistry - a Molecular Science

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Chemistry Formulas Successive Ionization Energies Adding electrons gets increasingly difficult as each added electron reduces the elecetron affinity Cations stay under 3 charges Anions stay above 3 charges Polyatomic Ions Charged groups of covalently bound atoms Forms ionic bonds with oppositely charged ions nonmetals held together by covalent bonds Naming Oxoanions Central atom is in it s highest oxidation state Group 7A elements form four so prefix suffix must be used Protonated Oxoanions Oxoanions with 2 or 3 charges can be portonated H ion added and still retain negative charge Hydrogen in front of the anion name Common unit of bond lengths Most bond lengths fall between 1 and 3 Angstroms Bond Dipole Bonds in atoms with different electronegativities is said to have a bond dipole Represented by the vector pointing from the center of positive chrage toward the negative charge Percent Ionic Character Bond types change continuously from covalent to ionic 50 ionic ionic Between 5 50 ionic polar covalent Below 5 ionic covalent Lewis Symbols For the first three periods of the periodic table They represent an atom that is about to bond not an isolated atom Lewis Structures Atoms bond seeking to fill their octets Electrons not involved in bonding are called lone pairs How calculating Lewis Structures works Bond Energies and Lengths Shows how the bond strength of a particular bond increases and it s bond length decreases as it s bond order increases Strength decreases Length Increased Bond Order Increased Bond Strength Bond order number of shared pairs present Formal Charge FC Valence e lone pairs bonds Formal Charges of Zero An atom has a zero formal charge in a molecule if the of bonds it s in equals the of unpaired electrons in it s Lewis Symbol Zero formal charge is preferred Oxidation States Way to count electrons Aj 1 atom more electronegative than j Aj 0 atom less electronegative than j Aj 1 2 atoms are identical VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model



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