WSU PSYCH 265 - Prescription & OTC (6 pages)

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Prescription & OTC

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Prescription & OTC


prescription drugs commonly abused/misused and over the counter drugs

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Washington State University
Psych 265 - biopsychological effect
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PSYCH 265 1st Edition Lecture 30 Outline of Last Lecture I ADHD a Types b Monoamine hypothesis c Neurochemistry d Anti adhd stimulants e Atomoxetine f II Abuse of neurostimulants Dementia a Common cause b Causes c Symptoms III Alzheimer s a Pathology IV Neurofibrillary tangles V Senile plaques VI ChE I Outline of Current Lecture I Prescription drug abuse These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute a Dangers II Pain relievers III Stimulants IV Anabolic steroids V OTC VI DXM VII Pseudoephedrine VIII Motion sickness IX Inhalants X Sudden sniffing death XI Caffeine XII Diet pills XIII Herbal ecstasy XIV Other herbals Current Lecture Prescription Drug Abuse o Drug misuse abuse Using a drug w o a prescription Using a drug in a way that differs from the physicians instructions Using a drug for experience or feeling produced by drug o Synonymous w nonmedical use of drug o NIH estimated 52 mil people have used prescription drugs for nonmedical reasons at least once in lifetime o Estimated 20 HS students admit to taking w o doctors prescription 1 in 12 HS seniors reported past year nonmedical use of Vicodin About 1 in 20 HS seniors reported past year nonmedical use of oxycontin Dangers of Prescription Drug Abuse o Common misconception that abusing prescription medications is safer than taking illicit street drugs o Abusing prescriptions is very dangerous can be deadly Potential to overdose on prescription med or become addicted is very real Pain relievers o Opioid pain relievers are most commonly abused o Opioid misuse abuse is responsible for 75 of overdose related deaths o People take opioids recreationally to experience euphoria o When abused opioids can lead to sedation dizziness weakness sweating and more o Single high dose of an opioid can depress breathing and lead to coma or death o Lowering dose or abruptly stopping may lead to withdrawal syndrome Drug overdose Tolerance Physical psychological dependence Withdrawal syndrome Over 50 ppl who abuse obtain drug from family friends 27 ppl who abuse obtain drug through prescriptions from physician Non opioid pain relievers NSAIDs are also abused prescription drugs Some people taken acetaminophen ibprofen in higher doses or more than recommended o Liver failure with large doses of acetaminophen o Large doses of ibprofen can increase stomach bleeding kidney failure and cardiac risks Stimulants o Medications like methylphenidate dextroamphetamine are prescribed for people w ADHD b c they paradoxically promote calm ability to focus in these individuals These medications work by increasing brain levels of DA o Some abuse stimulants believing they can help boost cognitive performance They hope to feel increased energy exhilaration o Stimulants can lead to appetite reduction nervousness insomnia heart attacks seizures strokes hallucinations paranoia hostility psychosis o Withdrawal symptoms include Fatigue Mood and sleep changes Increased hunger Extreme restlessness Anabolic steroids o Legally prescribed to treat conditions resulting from hormone deficiency delayed puberty diseases that result in loss of lean mass like cancer AIDS o Some abuse in order to bulk up build larger muscles hoping to enhance their athletic performance o Do not cause high like of abusing other drugs but can lead to addiction o Persist in abusing steroids despite physical problems neg effects o Abusers spend large amounts of time money obtaining o Withdrawal can include mood sleep changes reduced appetite fatigue restlessness depression suicidal thoughts most dangerous OTC drug abuse o Most common among ages 13 16 o Young adults abuse in combo w other meds alcohol illegal drugs DXM o OTC cold cough meds o Sold on internet as powder it is very risky b c of uncertain composition dose o Large doses of DXM can cause euphoria distortions of color and sound and out of body hallucinations that last up to 6 hours o High DMX doses cause vomitting tachycardia high BP liver brain damage o Combo w alchol or other drugs large dose can lead to death Pseudoephedrine o Found in cold meds o Causes excitable hyperactive feeling o Abuse less common than w other OTC due to fed law requiring it to be kept behind the counter o Dangerous side effects include Heart palpitations Irregular heartbeats Heart attacks o When combo w other drugs like narcotics may trigger paranoid psychosis Motion sickness pill o Contain dimenhydrinate or diphenhydramine taken in large doses can cause one to feel high and have hallucinations similar to street drugs o Contain anticholinergic drugs which work like anticholinergic deliriant hallucinogens o Teens may take as many as 40 pills to get desired high Extremely high cause dangerous irreg HB coma Heart attacks death Inhalants o Abused by young children b c of accessiblity o Only class of abused substances that is used more by younger than older ppl o Many home work products contain volatile substances that have psychoactive properties when inhaled o 3 main classes Solvents Paint thinner ligher fluid toluene correction fluid markers glue cleaning fluids Gases NO2 ether chloroform propane freon Nitrites Amyl nitrite room deoderizers Sudden sniffing death o o Cardiac arrest Immediately after experiences arrhythmia irreg muscle contraction if med attention not ASAP heart may lose ability to effectively pump blood o Death can also occur hours after from respiratory depression Slowed breathing can inhibit oxygen supply Vomiting while user is intoxicated or sedated can lead to choking and aspiration of vomit into lungs Caffeine meds energy drinks o OTC caffiene pills or energy drinks or pain relievers w caffeine have all been abused for the buzz o Large doses of caffeine cause serious dehydration gastric reflux panic attack heart irreg linked to death o Taking too much pain reliever can cause serious side effects too Diet pills o The FDA has banned several of the most dangerous stimulants commonly found in OTC diet pills phenylpropanolamine ephedrine and ephedra o An earlier FDA ban on ephedra pertained only to diet pills considered dietary supplements not herbal remedies such as teas and Chinese preparations Herbal ecstasy o This is a combination of inexpensive herbs that are legally sold in pill form and swallowed snorted or smoked to produce euphoria increased awareness and enhanced sexual sensations o Marketed as a natural high the main ingredient is ma

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