UT Knoxville ARTH 183 - Kamakura, Muromachi, and Introduction to Momoyama Period Japan (4 pages)

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Kamakura, Muromachi, and Introduction to Momoyama Period Japan

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Kamakura, Muromachi, and Introduction to Momoyama Period Japan


Covers all items on Handout 18 and up to item 1 on Handout 19 ("Himeji Castle").

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Tennessee
Arth 183 - Asian Art
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ARTH183 1st Edition Lecture 24Outline of Last LectureI. Heian Period Japan Court Art: “Tale of Genji” ContinuedA. Ukifune and Naka no Kimi illustration; scene it portraysa. Double function of illustrationb. Composition-Possible significance of Ukifune’s positionc. StyleII. Esoteric and Amida BuddhismA. Esoteric/Vajrayana Buddhisma. Characteristics-“Buddha Nature”-Relationship to Hinduismb. Mandala; definitionB. “Mandalas of the Two Worlds (Womb World and Diamond World)”; historical significance, typical mandala composition (Vairochana)a. Relationship to Chinese Tang artb. “Womb World”-Composition (hieratic scale)c. “Diamond World”-Composition-“Wisdom fist” mudra; meaning-Gold foil techniqueC. Amida/Pure Land Buddhism; a. Characteristics/appeal to common people-Growth in connection to concept of mappoD. “Phoenix Hall” at Byodo-in Temple; purpose/dedication, source of namea. Form/Style-Chinese influence-East/West orientation, lake symbolismb. Use by aristocracy (experience it was meant to evoke)E. “Amida,” by Jocho, in Phoenix Hall at Byodo-in Templea. Amida meditation mudrab. “Joined wood” sculpture method-Hollow interior contentsc. Form/Style-Wall sculptures of retinueThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.*Identifier of Avalokiteshvara, its significanceIII. Kamakura Period Japan (1185-1333 CE)A. Big governing shift; its effects on arta. Introduction to “Tales of the Heiji/Heiji Monogatari”-SubjectOutline of Current LectureI. Kamakura Period Japan: “Tales of the Heiji/Heiji Monogatari” ContinuedA. Form/subjecta. Illustrated handscroll/emakimonob. Single scene/continuous narration-Formatting of actionB. Style; characteristics, basis for useC. Palacea. Formatting of vignettesD. Style relation to political messageII. Muromatchi Period Japan and Zen BuddhismA. Zen Buddhism; originsa. Main emphasesb. Relationship to military familiesB. “Catching a Catfish with a Gourd,” Jojetsua. Original format and patron-Shogunb. Subject; relationship to Zen Buddhismc. Style-Typical Zen treatment of figures-Relationship to Chinese Southern Song styleC. “Rock Garden”; relationship to Zen Buddhism, Zen Buddhist templesa. Form/Components-Symbolism of gravel and garden as a wholeb. Usec. Zen Buddhist aesthetic values-Wabi-SabiIII. Momoyama Period Japan (1573-1615)A. History; Totoyomi HiteyoshiB. Development of castlea. Use, developed in response to whatC. “Himeji Castle”; builder, 2 main divisionsa. Form/Style (lack of openness, heaviness)-The keep*Effect of gables-Domestic area-Defensive strategiesb. Audience Hall Interior; form, décor-New style of wall painting*OriginCurrent LectureKamakura Period Japan: “Tales of the Heiji/Heiji Monogatari” ContinuedWe start to see more military themes and tastes creeping into art at this time; this is an illustrated handscroll for a war novel-a continuous scene of a single attack on the palace of the retired emperor (example of continuous narration). The action picks up gradually, building from right to left, then hits an abrupt stop at the palace wall; the palace section takes up the whole height of the scroll, while the figural scenes have space around them. After the palace the story tapers off again to a single figure at the far left-Style=Thinly applied color, more unpainted ground, expressive faces and postures, lots of frenzied activity; very different from “Tale of Genji” style, with style use based on appropriateness to subject matter*Sense of movement generated in blurred spokes of wheels on chariots*Flames are done in variety of reds, blacks, greys, small specks of red suggesting embers, sinuous tongues of fire-Looking with an aerial view into the palace, we see armored warriors, samurai, female figures hiding or fleeing; the architecture creates a framework for small vignettes-References to novel text with well full of dead female bodies, beheading of emperor’s chief staff members…beautiful, sensual style depicting horrific scenes glorifies war and great, heroic deeds of the militaryMuromatchi Period Japan and Zen BuddhismThe Muromatchi Period (1392-1573) began after the collapse of the Kamakura government (was stretched too thin because of threats of attack from the west).Zen Buddhism was brought in from China during the Kamakura Period-it’s thought to have actually originated in China, not India (this is a period of renewed influence from China). Lots of emphasis on long time periods spent in meditation, self-discipline, practical ways of attaining enlightenment; held appeal to military clans, who became very important patrons of Zen Buddhist temples. The sect is based a lot on student/teacher relationships and uses humor.-“Catching a Catfish with a Gourd,” Jojetsu. Muromatchi Period, ca. 1413 CE: Nowa hanging scroll, this originally was a small, wood-framed screen made for the shogun (leader ofthe military government) Ashikaga Yoshimochi. Chinese Southern Song landscape painting is a big influence/source. Title and subject reference a Zen Buddhist saying about how hard it is to attain enlightenment; typical Zen riddles and sayings pose questions to provoke out-of-the-box thinking*Shabby, humble-looking figure is typical of Zen Buddhist art-see much less idealization*One-corner concentration of composition, relatively little texture or detail, very muted color, lots of unpainted ground showing expanse of space into distance all show Chinese Southern Song influence-“Rock Garden.” At Ryoanji, Kyoto. Muromatchi Period, ca. 1480 CE: Zen dry gardens are a famous feature of Zen Buddhist temples in Japan. Temples would have big public areas with smaller sub-temples for leaders to meet with their students; often these dry gardens are around sub-temples. The rock garden at Ryoanji is a rectangular space with raked gravel androck groupings surrounded by green or brown moss (gravel is used in place of and as a reference to water). Gardens are abstract representations of landscapes; not meant to be walked in, but as a meditation exercise-a screen that you can project your interpretation on as you will*Zen Buddhism is associated with 2 main aesthetic qualities: Wabi (valuesausterity, simplicity, imperfection, understated beauty) and sabi (values patina of age and rusticity); pretty vague terms that can be applied to all sorts of things*Monks rake and create

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