UA BSC 109 - Cancer (4 pages)

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Cancer



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Cancer

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discusses signs, causes, and types of cancer


Lecture number:
25
Pages:
4
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Alabama
Course:
Bsc 109 - Intro Biology Non Maj II
Edition:
1
Unformatted text preview:

BSC 109 1st Edition Lecture 25 Outline of Last Lecture I Infertility inability to conceive A Infertility inability to achieve pregnancy after a year of trying B Causes C Enhancing fertility II Sexually transmitted diseases STDs A Transmitted by sexual contact including genital oral genital anal genital B Can be very damaging or deadly C Some are not treatable D Bacterial STDs E Viral STDs F Other STDs Outline of Current Lecture I Cancer an introduction II Tumors can be benign or cancerous III Cancerous cells lose control over their functions and structures IV How cancer develops V Mutant forms of proto oncogenes tumor suppressor genes and mutator genes contribute to cancer VI A variety of factors can lead to cancer VII The immune system plays an important role in cancer prevention VIII Advances in diagnosis enable early detection IX Cancer treatments X Observe skin lesions for Current Lecture Chapter 18 Cancer XI XII Cancer an introduction A Cancer is always a genetic disease B All cancers are diseases of cell division and differentiation C Abnormal cells 1 Malfunctions in growth monitoring that allow for overproduction of cells 2 Can migrate to several different locations throughout lifetime Tumors can be benign or cancerous These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A B Hyperplasia substantial increase in the rate of cell division Tumor 1 Also known as a neoplasm 2 A discrete mass of cells resulting from hyperplasia C Benign tumors 1 Can still kill you 2 Noncancerous 3 Remain in one location 4 Single well defined mass 5 May be surrounded by connective tissue 6 Often can be readily removed surgically 7 Mutations basis of natural selection and evolution good if leads to natural selection and evolution and bad if it leads to cancer generally not a big deal XIII Cancerous cells lose control over their functions and structures A Dysplasia 1 Abnormal change in cell structure 2 Considered a precancerous state B Cancerous tumors 1 Abnormal cell structure 2 Loss of regulation of cell growth C In situ cancer tumor stays in one place D Malignant tumor 1 Tumor invades normal tissue and compromises organ function 2 Tumor may undergo metastasis a Spread of cancer to another organ or body region b Secondary malignant tumors at other locations may develop XIV How cancer develops A Cell must divide uncontrollably B Cell must undergo physical changes and break away from surrounding cells XV Mutant forms of proto oncogenes tumor suppressor genes and mutator genes contribute to cancer A Proto oncogenes normal regulatory genes that promote cell growth and differentiation division or adhesion B Oncogenes 1 Mutated or damaged proto oncogenes 2 May cause cells to grow and divide more quickly than normal 3 May result in a cell failing to respond to inhibitory signals C Tumor suppressor genes 1 Regulatory genes repress cell growth division differentiation and adhesion 2 May be turned off damaged or mutated in cancers D Mutator genes 1 Involved in DNA repair during replication 2 May be mutated themselves and not function XVI A variety of factors can lead to cancer A Some genes may be inherited that increase susceptibility to cancer B Carcinogenesis 1 Process of transforming a normal cell into a cancer cell 2 Carcinogen any substance or physical factor that causes cancer C Chemicals in the environment asbestos benzene some pesticides dyes D Tobacco responsible for 30 of all cancer deaths E Radiation 1 Ultraviolet radiation sun exposure skin cancer 2 Causes 80 of all skin cancers F Red meat saturated animal fat increased risk of cancer of colon rectum prostate G High salt consumption associated with stomach cancer H Type II diabetics have a much higher risk of dying of cancer I Antioxidants vitamins A C E may neutralize free radicals antioxidant containing foods blueberries spinach tomatoes XVII The immune system plays an important role in cancer prevention A Immune system normally defends the body against cancers B Cancer cells may not be recognized as self and may be destroyed by the immune system C Anything that suppresses the immune system may make an individual more susceptible to cancer XVIII Advances in diagnosis enable early detection A Tumor imaging x rays B Genetic testing C Enzyme tests for cancer markers XIX Cancer treatments A Surgery has improved with better imaging techniques B Radiation targets the tumor but sometimes damages healthy cells C Chemotherapy use of cytotoxic drugs to destroy cancer cells 1 Side effects nausea hair loss anemia 2 Often kills normal cells as well D Magnetism E Photodynamic therapy XX Observe skin lesions for A A asymmetry two halves of the affected area don t match B B border border is irregular in shape C C color varies or is black D D diameter greater than 6 mm size of pea E E evolution change in size shape color or elevation new symptoms such as bleeding itching or crusting


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